McCausland, I. 1999. “Anomalies in the History of Relativity.” Journal of Scientific Exploration 13: 271 -290.

Sarkar, S. 2007. Doubting Darwin? Creationist Designs on Evolution . Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Is this how science works?

Summary of problems:

Science is about the pursuit of reliable knowledge that offers cogent explanations and testable predictions. Explore Evolution cannot show how real science works, because to do so would expose itself as a slick exercise in manufactured controversy.

Full discussion:

From Explore Evolution:


Scientists often disagree about how to interpret evidence

Summary of problems with claim:

This claim is true, and this is exactly why the status of standard evolutionary theory is so secure. Scientist are inherently skeptical and actively challenge both new and old ideas. Evolution is a strong theory because it has withstood these challenges.


Science is about debate

Expert Witnesses

Think of them like witnesses at a trial who have to tell the truth on specifics even if this disagrees with their overall view


Are critics of evolution misquoting or quoting out-of-context

Summary of problems:

Scores of scientists have publicly denounced the Discovery Institute for misrepresenting their views by selectively quoting snippets out of context. The Discovery Institute goes farther than quoting scientists out of context; they manipulate quotes in such a way to make the words of these scientists seem to support creationism, much to the chagrin of the cited scientists.

Creationism Versus Science

"'[C]reationists versus evolutionists' [is] a familiar and predictable storyline" that ignores the fascinating details of this scientific debate

Malcolm Gordon

Malcolm Gordon disbelieves universal common ancestry, and another scientist, Michael Behe, accepts it

Icons of Evolution?

In 2003, NCSE's Alan Gishlick prepared the comprehensive response below to Jonathan Wells's creationist book Icons of Evolution, (hereafter, Icons). Icons is an example of the ID creationist strategy of focusing entirely on denigrating evolution without advancing a positive argument for creationism or any other ideas. The arguments made in Icons are reworkings of well-worn creationist attacks on evolution. The book remains popular among ID creationists, and is also available in video and DVD formats.

Fossil Succession


This chapter promotes the view that different lineages of living things have independent histories and do not share common ancestry. This idea attacks the core tenet of evolutionary theory--that all living things are genealogically related. The refusal to accept common ancestry is the sine qua non (indispensable idea) of creationism in all of its various guises.

To try to undermine confidence in common ancestry, this chapter trots out some hackneyed creationist claims:

  1. transitional fossils are rare.