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The Role of "Nebraska Man" in the Creation-Evolution Debate

Title: 
The Role of "Nebraska Man" in the Creation-Evolution Debate
Author(s): 
John Wolf and James S. Mellett
Number: 
2
Year: 
1985

In 1922, solely on the basis of a worn fossil tooth from Nebraska, paleontologist Henry Fairfield Osborn described Hesperopithecus haroldcookii as the first anthropoid ape from North America. Five years later, Osborn's colleague William King Gregory concluded that the tooth most likely came from an extinct peccary, a pig-like animal. During its brief life, Hesperopithecus provoked intemperate speculations about its relation to humans, including a "reconstruction" of "Nebraska Man" by an artist in a popular

Quarter: 
Summer

References

Anonymous, 1922. "Nebraska's 'Ape man of the western world,'" The New York Times, Sept. 17, sect. 7, p. 1

Anonymous, 1924a. "Ape of the western world restudied," Natural History, 24, pp. 273-274.

Anonymous, 1924b. "Dr. Straton assails Museum of Natural History," The New York Times, March 9, sect. 2, p. 1.

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Anonymous, 1925a. "11 scientists named to aid Scopes' case," The New York Times, June 26, p. 2.

Anonymous, 1925b. "Bryan in Dayton, calls Scopes trial duel to the death," The New York Times, July 8, pp. 1, 6.

Anonymous, 1928a "Nebraska ape tooth proved a wild pig's," The New York Times, Feb. 20, p. 1.

Anonymous, 1928b. "Peccavis and peccaries," The New York Times, Feb. 21, p. 24.

Anonymous, 1928c. "Hesperopithecus dethroned," The Times (London), Feb. 21, p. 16.

Anonymous, 1928d. "Hesperopithecus," The Times (London), Feb. 25, p. 13.

Anonymous, 1928e. "The opponent's round," Scientific American, 138, p. 401.

B[oule], M., 1928. "La vraie nature de l'Hesperopithecus," L'Anthropologie, 38, pp. 208-209.

Boule, Marcellin, and Henri V. Vallois, 1957. Fossil Men: A Textbook of Human Palaeontology, London: Thames and Hudson.

Bowden, M., 1981 (second enlarged edition). Ape-Men-Fact or Fallacy?, Bromley, England: Sovereign Publications.

Bryan, William Jennings, 1921. The Bible and Its Enemies, Chicago: The Bible Institute Colportage Association.

Bryan, William Jennings, 1925. "Mr. Bryan speaks to Darwin," The Forum, 74, pp. 101-107.

Dewar, Douglas, and H. S. Shelton, 1947. Is Evolution Proved?, London: Hollis and Carter.

Fix, Wm. R., 1984. The Bone Peddlers: Selling Evolution, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Forestier, A., 1922. "The earliest man tracked by a tooth: An 'astounding discovery' of human remains in Pliocene strata (A reconstruction drawing by A. Forestier)," The Illustrated London News, June 24, pp. 942-943.

Gish, Duane T., 1979 (third edition). Evolution? The Fossils Say No!, San Diego: Creation-Life Publishers.

Gregory, William K., 1927. "Hesperopithecus apparently not an ape nor a man," Science, n. s. 66, pp. 579-581.

Gregory, William K., and Milo Hellman, 1923a. "Notes on the type of Hesperopithecus haroldcookii Osborn," American Museum Novitates, 53, pp. 1-16.

Gregory, William K., and Milo Hellman, 1923b. "Further notes on the molars of Hesperopithecus and of Pithecanthropus," Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 48, pp. 509-530.

Hitching, Francis, 1982. The Neck of the Giraffe, New Haven: Ticknor & Fields.

Matthew, W. D., and Harold J. Cook, 1909. A Pliocene fauna from western Nebraska, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 26, pp. 361-414.

Mellett, James S., 1977. Paleobiology of North American Hyaenodon (Mammalia, Creodonta), Contributions to Vertebrate Evolution, 1, pp. 1-134.

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 1922a. "Evolution and religion," The New York Times, March 5, sect. 7, pp. 2, 14.

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 1922b. "Hesperopithecus, the first anthropoid primate found in America," American Museum Novitates, 37, pp. 1-5.

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 1922c. "Hesperopithecus, the first anthropoid primate found in America," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 8, pp. 245-246.

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 1922d. "Hesperopithecus, the anthropoid primate of western Nebraska," Nature, 110, pp. 281-283.

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 1925a. "The Earth speaks to Bryan," The Forum, 73, pp. 796-803.

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 1925b. The Earth Speaks to Bryan, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 1925c. "Osborn states the case for evolution," The New York Times, July 12, sect. 8, p. 1.

Q., C. H. B., 1930. "Mr. Amedee Forestier," The Times (London), Nov. 19, p. 19.

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Smith, G. Elliott (sic), 1922. "Hesperopithecus: The ape-man of the western world," The Illustrated London News, June 24, p. 944.

Smith, G. Elliot, 1931. "The evolution of man," In: Early Man: His Origin, Development and Culture, London: Ernest Benn Limited, pp. 13-46.

Straton, John Roach, 1928. "Dr. Straton offers a 'pig-tooth' debate," The New York Times, Feb. 27, p. 19.

Straton, John Roach, and Charles Francis Potter, 1924. Evolution versus Creation, New York: George H. Doran Company.

Woodburne, Michael 0., 1969. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of Cynorca and Dyseohyus(Tayassuidae), Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 141, pp. 271-356.

Woodward, A. Smith, 1922. "The earliest man?" The Times (London), May 22, p. 17.

About the Author(s): 
John Wolf is public information officer at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center in Madison. James Mellett is associate professor of geology at New York University.
© Copyright 1985 by John Wolf and James S. Mellett
Accepted for publication July 6, 1984
Page(s): 
31–43
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Basic Created Kinds and the Fossil Record of Perissodactyls

Title: 
Basic Created Kinds and the Fossil Record of Perissodactyls
Author(s): 
James S. Monroe
with illustrations by Daniel G. Warren
Number: 
2
Year: 
1985

"Original kinds have been stable" is a tenet of "scientific" creationism, and scientific evidence can be given to support this tenet. At least, this is the claim of creation "scientists." Evidence usually cited includes probability, thermodynamics, the "impossibility" of beneficial mutations, and the fossil record, all of which are intended to show that evolution from "kind" to "kind" could not have occurred. The intent of this article is to show that the concept of a "basic created kind" is without meaning, especially when applied to fossil animals, and to demonstrate that the

Quarter: 
Summer

Bibliography

Awbry, F. T. 1981. "Defining 'Kinds'-Do Creationists Apply a Double Standard?" Creation/Evolution, v. 1-6.

Bader, R. S. 1956. "A Quantitative Study of the Equidae of the Thomas Farm Miocene. Bulletin Museum Comparative Zoology, 115:49-78.

Bell, R. H. V. 1971. "A Grazing Ecosystem in the Serengeti." Scientific American, 225: 86-93.

Colbert, E. H. 1980. Evolution of the Vertebrates. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.

Cousins, F. W. 1971. "A Note on the Unsatisfactory Nature of the Horse Series of Fossils as Evidence for Evolution." Creation Research Society Quarterly, 8:99-108.

Crouch, J. E. 1965. Functional Human Anatomy. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.

Epstein, H. 1971. The Origin of the Domestic Animals of Africa. Africana Publ. Co., N. Y.

Forsten, A. 1975. "The Fossil Horses from the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain." Journal of Paleontology, 49:395-399.

Gazin, C. L. 1952. "The Lower Eocene Knight Formation of Western Wyoming and Its Mammalian Faunas." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 117:1-82.

Gish, D. T 1978. Evolution: The Fossils Say No! Creation-Life Publ., San Diego.

Gould, S. J. 1983. Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes. W. W. Norton & Co., N.Y.

Gregory, W. K. and Hellman, M. 1939. "On the Evolution and Major Classification of the Civits (Viverridae) and Allied Fossil and Recent Carnivora: A Phylogenetic Study of the Skull and Dentition." Proceedings American Philosophical Society, 81:309-392.

Hiebert, H. 1979. Evolution: Its Collapse in View? Horizon House Publ., Beaverlodge, Alberta, Canada.

Jones, A. J. 1973. "How Many Animals on the Ark?" Creation Research Society Quarterly, 10:102-107.

Keast, A. 1965. "Interrelationships of Two Zebra Species in an Overlap Zone." Journal of Mammalogy, 46:53-66.

Kingdon, J. 1979. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa, v. III, part B (Large Mammals). Academic Press, N.Y.

Kitcher, P. 1982. Abusing Science: The Case against Creationism. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Kitts, D. B. 1957. "A Revision of the Genus Orohippus (Perissodactyla, Equidae)." American Museum Novitates, no. 1864:1-40.

Kofahl, R. E. 1977. Handy Dandy Evolution Refuter. Beta Books, San Diego.

Kruuk, H. 1972. The Spotted Hyena. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

LaHaye, T. and Morris, J. 1976. The Ark on Ararat. Thomas Nelson Co., N. Y. and Creation-Life Publ., San Diego.

Lucas, S. G. et al. 1981. "The Systematics of Forstercooperia, a Middle to Late Eocene Hyracodontid (Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotoidea) from Asia and Western North America." Journal of Paleontology, 55:826-84 1.

Lull, R. S. 1931. "The Evolution of the Horse Family." Special Guide No. 1, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University.

MacFadden, B. J. 1976. "Cladistic Analysis of Primitive Equids, with Notes on other Perissodactyls." Systematic Zoology, 25:1-14.

MacFadden, B. J. 1982. "Horses, the Fossil Record, and Evolution." Abstract, Supplement to No. 2, Journal of Paleontology, 56:17.

Martin, E. B. 1984. "They're Killing off the Rhino." National Geographic, 165:404-422.

Matthew, W. D. 1931. "Critical Observations on the Phylogeny of the Rhinoceroses," Bulletin Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, 20:1-9.

Moore, J. N. 1983. How to Teach Origins (Without ACLU Interference). Mott Media, Midland, Michigan.

Moore, J. N. and Slusher, H. S. (eds.). 1974. Biology: A Search for Order in Complexity. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

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Morris, H. M. (ed.) 1974. Scientific Creationism (public school edition). Creation-Life Publ., San Diego.

Morris, H. M. 1983. "Creation is the Foundation." Impact no. 126. Institute for Creation Research.

Morris, W. J. 1968. "Correlation of New Tertiary Mammals from Baja, California with North American Provincial Ages." Science, 153:1376-1378.

Osborn, H. F. 1929. "The Titanotheres of Ancient Wyoming, Dakota, and Nebraska." U. S. Geological Survey Monograph 55, v. 1 and 2.

Owen, R. 1841. "Description of the Fossil Remains of a Mammal Hyracotherium lepinorum and a Bird Lithornis culturinus from the London Clay." Transactions of the Geological Society of London, 6:203-208.

Peterson, O. A. 1907. "Preliminary Notes on Some American Chalicotheres." The American Naturalist, 41:733-752.

Radinsky, L. B. 1964. "Paleomoropus, a New Early Eocene Chalicothere (Mammalia, Perissodactyla), and a Revision of Eocene Chalicotheres." American Museum Novitates, no. 2179:1-27.

Radinsky, L. B. 1967. "A Review of the Rhinocerotoid Family Hyracodontidae (Perissodactyla)." Bulletin American Museum Natural History, 136:1-45.

Radinsky, L. B. 1968. "The Early Evolution of the Perissodactyla." Evolution, 23:308-328.

Romer, A. S. 1962. The Vertebrate Body. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

Romer, A. S. 1966. Vertebrate Paleontology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Savage, D. E. and Russell, D. E. 1983. Mammalian Paleofaunas of the World. Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Ma.

Schafersman, S. D. 1983. "Fossils, Stratigraphy, and Evolution: Consideration of a Creationist Argument." In L. R. Godfrey, editor, Scientists Confront Creationism, p. 219-244. W. W. Norton and Co., N.Y.

Scott, W. B. 1891. "On the Osteology of Mesohippus and Leptomeryx, with observations on the Modes and Factors of Evolution in the Mammalia." Journal of Morphology, 5:301-406.

Scott, W. B. 1945. "The Mammalia of the Duchesne River Oligocene." Transactions American Philosophical Society, n. s., v. 24, part 3, 209-25 3.

Scott, W. B. and Jepsen, G. L. 1941. "The Mammalian Fauna of the White River Oligocene." Part V, Perissodactyla. Transactions American Philosophical Society, n. s. v. 28, part 5, 747-980.

Simpson, G. G. 1951. Horses. Oxford University Press, N.Y.

Simpson, G. G. 1953. The Major Features of Evolution. Simon and Schuster, N. Y.

Stanley, S. M. 1973. "Relative Growth of the Titanothere Horn: A New Approach to an Old Problem: Evolution. 28:447-457.

Stirton, R. A. 1940. "Phylogeny of North American Equidae." Bulletin Department of Geological Sciences. University of California, 25:165-198.

Whitcomb, J. C. and Morris, H. M. 1961. The Genesis Flood. The Presbyterian and Reformed Publ. Co., Philadelphia.

White, T. E. 1942. "The Lower Miocene Mammal Fauna of Florida." Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, 92:1-49.

Woodburne, M. O. and Robinson, P. T. 1977. "A New Late Hemingfordian Mammal Fauna from the John Day Formation, Oregon, and Its Stratigraphic Implications." Journal of Paleontology, 51:750-757.

Woodburne, M. O. and MacFadden, B. J. 1982. "A Reappraisal of the Systematics, Biogeography, and Evolution of Fossil Horses." Paleobiology, 8:315-327.

Wysong, R. L. 1976. The Creation-Evolution Controversy. Inquiry Press, Midland, Michigan.

About the Author(s): 
Dr. Monroe is Associate Professor of Geology at Central Michigan University in Mt. Pleasant. Dan Warren is a science illustrator holding a Bachelor of Science degree in biological anthropology.
Text Copyright © 1986 by James S. Monroe
Illustrations Copyright © 1985 by Daniel G. Warren
Page(s): 
4–30
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About this issue and the next . . .

Title: 
About this issue and the next . . .
Number: 
2

In this issue, we continue from Issue XIV the discussion of the design argument. William Thwaites leads off with an article about the natural formation of new proteins. "Letters to the Editor" continues the dialogue with responses to material published in previous issues of Creation/Evolution. Although we have on hand a new response from Norman Geisler, we chose not to publish it this issue. In this way, we could catch up on some of the letters written in response to his earlier contributions. Dr. Geisler's newest response will appear in the next issue,

Year: 
1985
Quarter: 
Summer
Page(s): 
Inside cover
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References

Title: 
References
Number: 
1

Albritton, C. C., Jr. 1942. "Dinosaur Tracks Near Comanche, Texas." Field and Laboratory 10:161-181.

Alexander, R. McN. 1976. "Estimates of Speeds of Dinosaurs." Nature 261: 129-130.

Bailey, B. 1984. "Dinosaur Will Confound Evolutionists, Finder Says." Dallas Morning News, August 9, p. 37A.

Barnes, F. A. 1975. "The Case of the Bones in Stone." Desert Magazine 38(2): 36-39, February.

Year: 
1985
Quarter: 
Winter
Page(s): 
53–56
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It Ain't Necessarily So: Giants and Biblical Literalism

Title: 
It Ain't Necessarily So: Giants and Biblical Literalism
Author(s): 
J.R. Cole
Number: 
1

In our culture, giants belong to the realm of St. George's dragon and other folklore. Belief in giants as flesh and blood rather than myth can be traced to a prescientific tradition. The Greeks had Prometheus, for example, and Gaea and the Titans; the Scandinavian first being was the giant Ymir whose body parts became the earth when he was slain by Odin and his brothers (a story similar to the Hindus' account of goddess Kali).

Year: 
1985
Quarter: 
Winter
Page(s): 
48–52
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If I Had a Hammer

Title: 
If I Had a Hammer
Author(s): 
J.R. Cole
Number: 
1

Our topic is basically limited to footprint claims, but the subject matter requires glances beyond these limits. Carl Baugh has stepped outside his footprints to claim other anti-evolutionist evidence.

Year: 
1985
Quarter: 
Winter
Page(s): 
46–47
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Mantracks? The Fossils Say No!

Title: 
Mantracks? The Fossils Say No!
Author(s): 
J.R. Cole, L.R. Godfrey, and S.D. Schafersman
Number: 
1

Year: 
1985
Quarter: 
Winter
Page(s): 
37–45
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Foot Notes of an Anatomist

Title: 
Foot Notes of an Anatomist
Author(s): 
L.R. Godfrey
Number: 
1

No paleontologist who has studied the flora or fauna of the Comanchean deposits in central Texas has ever reported a human footprint in these rocks. Yet, for decades, the existence of human footprints in these Cretaceous rocks has been touted by creationists as convincing evidence against the geological time scale and evolution. Creationists claim that evolutionists really know that there are human footprints there, as do the local folk. At the very least, they say, Roland T. Bird knew; according to the creationists he practically admitted it in the pages

Year: 
1985
Quarter: 
Winter
Page(s): 
16–36
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Tracking Those Incredible Creationists

Title: 
Tracking Those Incredible Creationists
Author(s): 
R.J. Hastings
Number: 
1
Year: 
1985

The following correction was subsequently made to this article in issue 17 (volume 6.1):

ERRATA

Dr. Ronnie Hastings would like to correct two errors that appeared in Creation/Evolution XV.

Quarter: 
Winter
Page(s): 
5–15
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Introduction

Title: 
Introduction
Author(s): 
J.R. Cole, L.R. Godfrey, R.J. Hastings, and S.D. Schafersman
Number: 
1

When creationist Clifford L. Burdick published in 1950 a short article entitled "When GIANTS Roamed the Earth: Their Fossil Footprints Still Visible!" in the Seventh Day Adventist periodical Signs of the Times, he opened a can of worms still not contained. He brought public attention to an issue that had been fairly local up to that time—the claim that human and dinosaur tracks are found together in the same strata and that the human tracks were made by biblical giants.

Year: 
1985
Quarter: 
Winter
Page(s): 
1–4
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Pages

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