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Developments in Evolutionary Biology for 2001

This is a continuation of the Pandas Update series. The name has been changed to reflect the fact that subsequent creationist publications, such as Sarfati's Refuting Evolution and Wells' Icons of Evolution, cover essentially the same topics as Pandas and People which was the first Intelligent Design "textbook".

Begining with the year 1995, I began to summarize the year-to-year discoveries and advancements of science that have relevance to the subject matter of the book Of Pandas and People. Surveying all the published literature would have been a next to impossible task so I have relied heavily on certain weekly publications such as Nature, Science, Science News and New Scientist and various science magazines such as Natural History, Scientific American, American Scientist and Discover, along with a variety of newly published books, for my information. Herein are the new discoveries for the year 2001.

Chapter 1: The Origin of Life

Early life

Several papers discuss the evolution of the earth's oxygen atmosphere (Copley 2001; Catling, Zahnle and McKay 2001; Hoehler, Bebout and Marais 2001; Sleep 2001). Dismukes and others (2001) describe an hypothesis for the step-wise evolution of photosynthesis. Several other papers (Orme and others 2001; Ribo and others 2001; Saghatellan and others 2001) discuss possible chiral mechanisms. Phoenix and others (2001) report that being mineralized in an iron-silica solution made cyanobacteria very resistant to the damaging effects of UV light. Supporting the RNA world concept, Johnson and others (2001) report on the creation of a ribozyme RNA polymerase while Netting (2001) reports on the creation of an RNA that binds to a specific amino acid (phenylalanine). Hazen (2001) discusses minerals as providing a scaffold for the assembly of biomolecules while Sowerby and others (2001) look at nucleic acid base absorption on crystalline graphite. Irion (2001) reports on research on self-assembling processes while Szostak, Bartel and Luisi (2001) look at the possibility of synthesizing life. Kintisch (2001) reports on the search for the smallest possible microbial genome.

Wilde, Valley, Peck and Craham (2001) provide evidence for the existence of continental crust and oceans 4.5 Gya. Grassineau and others (2001) and Shen, Buick and Canfield (2001) report on the antiquity of the biological sulfur cycle. Javaux, Knoll and Walter (2001) report that prerequisites for eukaryotic diversification were established nearly 1500 Mya. Eukaryotes may have arisen when a poxlike-virus ancestor provided a nucleus in symbiosis with an archaebacterium (Takemura 2001). Bell (2001) considers a similar hypothesis. Gibbs (2001) reports that the plans to penetrate Lake Vostok have been delayed.

The space connection

Much of the water in the cold regions of molecular clouds may be sublimed and frozen on the surface of dust grains, which act as catalytic sites for the formation of complex organic molecules (Samuel 2001). Dworkin, Deamer, Sandford and Allamandola (2001) report the synthesis of a complex mixture of organics in laboratory interstellar ice analogs. Blake and Jenniskens (2001) report on a different kind of ice structure formed in space that could accumulate organics. Comets may have brought Earth its water, organic molecules and atmosphere (Delsemme 2001). Carbonaceous meteorites may also have contributed water (Robert 2001).

Cooper and others (2001) report on the discovery of sugar-related organics found in the Muchison and Murray meteorites. Extraterrestrial amino acids are found in the Orgueil and Ivuna meteorites (Ehrenfreund and others 2001). Experiments indicate that life building blocks from space could survive an earth impact (Gorman 2001).

Other worlds

Special sections on astrobiology appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Coughlin 2001) and Nature (Gee 2001). Thomas-Keprta and others (2001) claims the magnetite crystals in the martian meteorite ALH84001 have a biological origin. Le Page (2001) hypothesizes that the 'nanobacteria' in the meteorite may be mineral deposits produced by larger iron-eating bacteria. Italian scientists claims to have grown alien microbes from meteorites (Abbott 2001). Chyba (2001) and Jones (2001) discuss life on Europa while Turtle (2001) claims Europa's ice shell may be 3 to 4 kilometers thick. Knight (2001), McCord (2001) and Schenk and others (2001) present evidence for an ocean on Ganymede. Ruiz (2001) discusses Callisto's ocean.

Kerr (2001) reports on a conference evaluating the evidence for water on Mars and the likelihood of panspermia. Hecht (2001) discusses a modern theory of panspermia. Other lines of evidence for water on Mars are presented by Cooper (2001), Mustard, Cooper and Rifkin (2001), Anonymous (2001) and for a deep internal source by McSween and others (2001) and Phillips and others (2001). Irion (2001) discusses the idea that Earth life came from Mars. Garlick (2001) dicusses a "galactic habitable zone" while Lunine (2001) discusses the role of Jovian planets in affecting the habitability of terrestrial planets in a planetary system. The literature on the birth of stars and planetary systems and the discovery of extra-solar planets is too large to be summarized here.

Chapter 2: Genetics and Evolution

Mutation

The role of error-prone polymerases or mutases on the rate of evolution is reviewed by Chicurel (2001). Giraud and others (2001) look at the cost of high mutation rates. We may have attained our large brains by reducing our mutation rates (Svitil 2001). Harder (2001) and Massingham, Davies and Lio (2001) discuss malaria-protective mutations.

Natural selection

Zimmer (2001) discusses detecting natural selection while Hoekstra and others (2001) and Kingsolver and others (2001) discuss natural selection in the wild. Brookfield (2001) discusses the concept of fitness. Emlen (2001) discusses the costs of exaggerated structures, in particular the production of horns in dung beetles, which reduces the size of neighboring morphological structures. Losos (2001) describes the evolution of anole lizards on Caribbean islands. Park, Buchanan and Evans (2001) consider the roles of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of tail streamers in barn swallows.

A number of articles deal with evolution of sexual selection and mate choice (Amundsen and Forsgren 2001, Engqvist and Sauer 2001, Gravilets, Arnqvist and Friberg 2001, Moore and others 2001). Several articles deal with genetic algorithms and test-tube evolution (Arnold 2001, Johnson 2001, Lemly 2001, Wakefield 2001).

Sex

Agrawal (2001) and Siller (2001) discuss how sexual selection can mitigate or even eliminate the cost of sex. Sexual reproduction functions to detect and remove genomic copy errors (Ridley 2001a, 2001b). It also functions to unlink favorable and unfavorable mutations allowing natural selection to preserve the favorable ones (Rice and Chippindale 2001). Brown and Casselton (2001) report on the unusual condition in mushrooms where there may be many different mating types. Jergalian and Lahn (2001) discuss the evolution of the mammalian X and Y chromosomes.

Transposons

Kidwell and Lisch (2001) review the role of mobile elements in host genome evolution. Hughes and Coffin (2001) review human endogenous retroviruses which make up 8% of the human genome. Arkhipova and Morrison (2001) report that telomere-associated transposons protect chromosomes from degradation. Yu and others (2001) report on the birth of a gene resulting from retroposon activity.

Genomes

The big news this year is the announcement of the completion of the draft human genome both by Celera (Venter and others 2001) and the public consortium (International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium 2001). A number of other papers on the human genome that accompany these reports are not listed in the references. The low estimates of the number of genes (26K to 38K) prompted controversy (Kintisch 2001, Lee 2001). It was also reported that hundreds of these were derived by horizontal transfer from bacteria but others disagree (Ponting 2001). Other papers related to the project include Deloukas and others (2001), Helmuth (2001), Katsanis, Worley and Lupski (2001), Lynch (2001), Patil and others (2001) and Shields (2001).

Continuing work is reported on the Arabadopsis genome (Bebetzen 2001, Leyser 2001, Martienssen and McCombie 2001) and Drosophila (Karlin, Bergman and Gentles 2001). Gewolb (2001) discusses animals to be chosen for sequencing. Glausiusz (2001) reports on those being sequenced including the mouse (Butler 2001, Marshall 2001a), the rat (Marshall 2001b) and the chimp (Cyranoski 2001). Work will soon start on Anopheles (Balter 2001) and the banana (Coughlan 2001). Others that have been finished are rice (Davenport 2001), two species of puffer fish (Travis 2001), the marine tunicate Oikopleura (Seo and others 2001), a second yeast and two fungi (Pennisi 2001) and the symbiotic red algal nucleus of a cryptomonad alga (Douglas and others 2001). Microbial genomes are routinely being sequenced (about 20 in 2001) and these are no longer considered here.

Genome related research

Petrov (2001) discusses the evolution of genome size and the C-value paradox. Charlesworth, Charlesworth and McVean (2001) discuss the effect of all the genome sequences on evolutionary biology. Friedman (2001) reports on bacterial genomes. Kuhn, Hijiri and Sanders (2001) report on multiple genomes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Pennisi (2001) reports on genome duplications as the raw material of evolution. Others investigate introchromosomal duplications in eukaryotes (Achaz, Netter and Coissc 2001), duplications in humans (Eicher 2001), the birth and death of duplicated genes (Wagner 2001), the functional divergence of duplicate genes (Massingham, Davies and Lio 2001, Van de Peer, Taylor, Braasch and Meyer 2001), and inversions in eukaryotes (Huynen, Snel and Bork 2001). Pseudogenes and junk DNA in Rickettsia genomes is reviewed by Andersson and Andersson (2001). Hirsch and Fraser (2001) investigate the rate of evolution in dispensible proteins in yeast.

The genetic code

Atkins and Gesteland (2001) review the discovery of the genetic code. Others investigate the evolution of redundancy (Ardell and Sella 2001), evolution of changes in the code - mostly in mitochondrial genomes (Knight, Landwebber and Yarus 2001), codon reassignment (O'Sullivan Davenport and Tuite 2001), and artificially expanding the code (Wang and others).

Macroevolution

Carroll (2001a) discusses the concepts of micro- and macro-evolution, the distinction being only descriptive, not mechanistic while Carroll (2001b) reviews the major events in evolution.

Miscellaneous

Comfort (2001) reviews the history of the gene concept. The role of introns is discussed by Duret (2001) and their origin by Fedorov and others (2001). Pietrokovski (2001) discusses intein spread and extinction. Benasson and others (2001) discuss mitrochondrial pseudogenes while Selosse, Albert and Godelle (2001) and Henze and Martin (2001) discuss how mitochondrial genes get transferred to the nucleus. Pennisi (2001) reports on extensive lateral transfer of genes between an archaean methanogen and a purple nonsulfur bacterium.

Barash (2001) discusses imperfections in evolutionary 'design'. Immigrants into a population will replenish genetic variation and reduce inbreeding depression, preventing the population's extinction (Ingvarsson 2001). Zimmer (2001) discusses junk DNA while Glausiusz (2001) reports on a coding error in 'junk' DNA linked with hyperactivity in rhesus monkeys. Weeks and others (2001) report on a mite species with haploid females probably caused by an undescribed endosymbiotic bacterium. Margulis and Sagan (2001) discuss symbiotic termite flagellates. Podos (2001) reports on correlated evolution of morphology and vocal signals in Darwin's finches.

Chapter 3: The Origin of Species

Barton (2001) introduces a special issue of Trends in Ecology and Evolution devoted to speciation with 11 separate articles on various aspects of the phenomenon including theoretical, genetic and chromosomal, sexual selection, ecological, sympatric speciation, and the fossil record. Harrison (2001) reviews the book Frogs, Flies & Dandelions: The Making of Species by Menno Schilthuizen. Irwin, Bensch and Price (2001) report a case of speciation in a ring in warblers where a chain of intergrading population encircles a barrier and the terminal forms coexist without interbreeding. Roco and others (2001) report genetic evidence for two species of elephants in Africa. Using genetic markers Martinsen and others (2001) find that hybrids can effectively filter gene flow between two species of cottonwood. Adaptation to microclimate overwhelms gene flow between two populations of Drosophila on opposite slopes of a canyon (Michalak and others 2001).

Gametic incompatibilities may lead to speciation in Drosophila (Alipaz, Wu and Karr 2001). Sperm-egg cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia (a cytoplasmically inherited bacterium) reduces the frequency of hybrid offspring between two species of wasp (Bordenstein, O'Hara and Werren (2001). Chromosomal inversions contribute to the hybrid sterility between Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis (Noor and other 2001). A chromosomal basis for speciation has also been found in mice (Corti and Rohlf 2001). Taylor, Peer and Meyer (2001) discuss a speciation model based on loss of different copies of a duplicated gene. Ritchie (2001) reports mtDNA evidence for allochronic speciation and reproductive character displacement in a new species of cicada. Swanson and others (2001) report natural selection driving the diversity of female reproductive proteins in mammals.

Hawthorne and Via (2001) report that ecological specialization can promote speciation if it is genetically linked to mate choice. Johannesson (2001) reviews studies emphasizing the role of ecological factors in sympatric speciation. Naisbit, Jiggins and Mallet (2001) report sexual selection against hybrids in two species of Heliconius butterflies, while Jiggins and others (2001) report assortative mating in Heliconius species based on shifts in mimicry color patterns. Divergent sexual selection enhanced reproductive isolation in sticklebacks (Boughman 2001).while Peichel and others (2001) look at the genetic basis for morphological differences in stickleback species. Butlin and Ritchie (2001) report on the genetic basis for divergent male sexual behaviors and female preferences in fruitflies and Doi and others (2001) find a locus for female discrimination behavior in Drosophila. Ting, Takahashi and Wu (2001) find sexual isolation based on multiple loci. On the other hand Veen and others (2001) find that apparent hybridization may be adaptive under some circumstances in flycatchers.

Kaufman (2001) and Meyer (2001) review The Cichlid Fishes: Nature's Grand Experiment in Evolution by GW Barlow. Research papers on cichilds discuss microsatellite species markers (Markert, Danley and Arnegard 2001), oldest fossil cichlids (Murray 2001), the role of lake level fluctuations in cichlid speciation (Sturnbauer and others 2001) while Fryer (2001) questions the drying out of Lake Victoria 12,000 years ago.

Chapter 4: The Fossil Record

New fossils

New fossil finds include an exceptionally preserved vermiform mollusc (Sutton and others 2001a) and a three-dimensionally preserved polychaete (Sutton and others 2001b) from the Silurian of England, primitive deuterostomes from the Lower Cambrian of China considered a new phylum, the Ventulicolians (Shu and others 2001), an early Cambrian tunicate (Shu, Chen, Han and Zhang 2001), two early Cambrian crustaceans (Chen, Vannier and Huang 2001; Siveter, Williams and Wasloszek 2001), a primitive sarcopterygian fish from the Early Devonian of China (Zhu, Yu and Ahlberg 2001), hundreds of specimens, both larval and adult, of a Late Jurassic salamander from a Chinese pond deposit (Gao and Shubin 2001) and water lilies from the Early Cretaceous (Frils, Pedersen and Crane 2001).

Reptile material includes the earliest (260 Mya) terrestrial herbivore, a synapsid (Rybczynski and Reisz 2001), a procolophonoid parareptile from the Triassic of South Africa (Modesto, Sues and Damiani 2001), a brachiosaur tooth alongside a 110 to 125 Myo dinosaur trackway in South Korea (Perkins 2001a), a giant pterosaur (up to 12 m wingspan) from the Cretaceous of Spain (Perkins 2001b), a plesiosaur with stomach contents and gastroliths from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas (Cicimurri and Everhart (2001), a mosasaur with four advanced embryos (Caldwell and Lee 2001), a giant sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous of Egypt (Smith and others 2001), a coelurosaur and a herbivore from the mid-Cretaceous of North America (Schubert 2001), a giant 12 m long crocodile from the Cretaceous of Africa (Sereno and others 2001), the most complete titanosaurian sauropod yet found - from the Cretaceous of Madagascar (Rogers and Forster 2001), embryonic titanosaur skulls from Argentina (Chiappe, Salgado and Coria 2001), a small theropod from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar with unusual lower dentition (Sampson Carrano and Forster 2001) and a small, long-armed velociraptor-like tyrannosaurid from the Isle of Wight (Stokstad 2001).

Mammalian finds include a tiny skull of an Early Jurassic mammal (Luo, Crompton and Sun 2001), the earliest with a fully mammalian jaw and middle ear, an Eocene fully quadrupedal sirenian representing a transitional form (Domning 2001), and a Late Cretaceous marsupial molar from Madagascar (Krauss 2001). Archibald, Averlanov and Ekdale (2001) report on Late Cretaceous eutherians.

The Cambrian Explosion

Hackman and others (2001) report molecular data that suggests green algae and fungi were present 1000 Mya and land plants appeared by 700 Mya in the Precambrian. Holland and Chen (2001) discuss the origin and early evolution of vertebrates including recently discovered soft-bodied Cambrian forms. Lieberman (2001) reports that speciation rates of olenelloid trilobites were not unusually high during the Cambrian radiation. Kimura and Watanabe (2001) present chemical evidence for widespread oceanic oxygen deficiency immediately before the Cambrian explosion. Siveter, Williams and Waloszek (2001) descibe an exceptionally well-preserved crustacean from Lower Cambrian rocks of Shropshire, England.

Birds

Ji and others (2001) report on the find of a dromaeosaurid dinosaur with unquestionable feathers. Xu, Zhou and Prum (2001) confirm the homology of Sinornithosaurus' integumentary appendages and primitive feathers. Perkins (2001) also discusses the origin of feathers. Prum and others (2001) question the feather-like nature of the integumentary structures of Longisquama. Rowe and others (2001) discuss the unfortunate Archaeoraptor forgery. The tail portion of that specimen is now described as that of a small bipedal dinosaur Microraptor zhaoianus. Galis (2001) discusses digit homology between dinosaurs and birds. A homeotic change may have affected digit identity in the wing of birds. Norell and Clarke (2001) report on the discovery of a new Late Cretaceous ornithurine bird. Cracraft (2001) presents evidence that modern birds originated in Gondwana prior to the K-T extinction event.

Whales

New fossil material of terrestrial cetaceans (Gingerich and others 2001; Thewissen and others 2001) document the relationships of whales to artiodactyls. Thewissen and Bajpai (2001) provide an up-to-date summary of the whale fossil record as an example of macroevolution while Gatesey and O'Leary (2001) summarize the fossil and molecular data and the controversy over mesonichid versus artidactyl origins.

Mass extinctions

Joblonski (2001) and Erwin (2001) discuss the evolutionary role of mass extinctions. New fossil finds (Harder 2001) and possible rock-record bias (Smith, Gale and Monks 2001) may indicate some of the mass extinctions were not as great as previously thought.

Further discussion of the Snowball Earth hypothesis concerning widespread Precambrian glaciation is given by Kennedy, Christie-Blick and Prave (2001). Kennedy, Christie-Blick and Sohl (2001) believe these glaciations were ended by large-scale release of methane from solid gas hydrates. Hassler and Simonson (2001) report on evidence for Early Precambrian asteroid impacts. Kerr (2001) reports on the finding of meteorites in Ordovician strata.

The Permian-Triassic extinction was by far the largest such event (Wright 2001). Smith and Ward (2001) find a bed in the Karoo marked by a reddening of flood-plain mud rocks and a change from high- to low-sinuosity river channels and a catastrophic extinction of vertebrate taxa below this boundary and appearance of new taxa above it. Twitchett and others (2001) find evidence of rapid and synchronous collapse of marine and terrestrial ecosystems followed by a "dead zone" occupied by Permian plants (Looy and others 2001). Geochemical evidence of a Permian-Triassic impact event is presented by Becker and others (2001) and Kaiho and others (2001). Hotinski and others (2001) report end-Permian ocean stagnation and anoxia.

Retallack (2001) provides a 300 My long record of atmospheric CO2 levels based on fossil plant cuticles. Beerling, Osborne and Chaloner (2001) also correlate leaf anatomy with CO2 levels. Tanner and others report on CO2 levels across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Padden, Weissert and de Rafelis (2001) report evidence for a Late Jurassic release of methane while Erbacher and others (2001) and Wilson and Norris (2001) report on anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous accompanied by a massive expansion of marine archaeans (Kuypers and others 2001).

Mukhopadhyay, Farley and Montanari (2001) give geochemical evidence and Pearson and others (2001) give fossil evidence for an abrupt extinction event at the K-T boundary. Melosh (2001) looks at the anatomy of the Chicxulub crater. Evidence for the impact is found in SE Missouri (Perkins 2001) while Lubick (2001) discusses evidence that large impacts exacerbate volcanic eruptions.

Miscellaneous

Steiner and Reitner (2001) suggest that some ediacarans were prokaryotic colonies! Stanley and Fautin (2001) postulate the origin of modern corals from soft-bodied mid-Triassic ancestors. The evolution of trees in the Devonian may have increased the O2 content of the atmosphere to nearly 40% (Simpson 2001). Jackson and Johnson (2001) discuss investigations into the diversity of animal life during the Phanerozoic (from about 500 Mya to the present). Bossuyt and Milinkovitch (2001) report a wide dispersal of frog lineages from India after it united with Eurasia.

Countering the creationist ideas that all crocodiles are alike, Naish (2001) reviews the wide variety of crocodilians. Cerrano and Wilson (2001) review fossil tetrapod tracks while Perkins (2001g) discusses other trace fossils. Diagnosing disease in fossils is treated by Perkins (2001b). A new population of coelacanths is found off Madagascar (Perkins 2001c) CT scans of eggs allow reconstruction of elephant bird embryos (Perkins 2001d). Norell, Makovicky and Currie (2001) investigate the beaks of ostrich dinosaurs. Niiler (2001) reports on a grooved theropod tooth that may have harbored deadly bacteria while Perkins (2001a) describes plant phytoliths trapped in cracks and pits of dino teeth giving clues to their diet. Sanz and others (2001) describe an Early Cretaceous coprolite containing tiny bird bones. Newly discovered skulls of juvenile Triceratops may reveal the growth patterns of their horns (Perkins 2001f).

Erickson, Rogers and Yerby (2001) investigate dino growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates. Dinos grew to their adult size relatively quickly, much as birds and mammals do today. Burness, Diamond and Flannery (2001) discuss why dinosaurs could grow so large. Powell (2001) reports that, because of heart limitations, Brontosaurus probably kept its neck more or less horizontal all the time. The evolution of alligator respiration is reviewed by Zimmer (2001) Witmer (2001) investigates nostril position in dinosaurs. Rayfield and others (2001) analyze the design and function of an allosaur skull. Luo, Cifelli and Kielan-Jawarowska (2001) discusss the possibility that tribosphenic mammals have a dual origin. Lister and Sher (2001) review the evolution of the woolly mammoth.

Rose (2001) and Wing (2001) describe Eocene ecosystems of Wyoming. Stokstad (2001a) discusses Utah fossil beds while Perkins (2001e) discusses fossil footprints in Utah. Stokstad (2001b) reviews all the recent Chinese fossils. Pringle (2001) recounts the discovery of a Middle Cretaceous ecosystem in New Mexico. Burdick (2001) descibes the fossil localities of Joggins and Cape Breton while Novacek (2001) describes fossil hunting in the Chilean Andes. Orndorff, Wieder and Filkorn (2001) discuss ichthyosaurs from Nevada strata. X-rays of an ichthyosaur skull suggest they were deaf (Anonymous 2001).

Buchholtz and Seyfarth (2001) recount the career of Tilly Edinger and the beginnings of paleoneurology. Zen (2001) introduces a special issue of the Journal of Geoscience Education devoted to Deep Time.

Chapter 4a: Human Evolution

Apes

Marivaux and others (2001) report on a 30 Myo fossil lemur from Pakistan while Limons (2001) reports on the cranium on an Egyptian ape. Cantalupo and Hopkins (2001) report on Broca's area in the brain which may govern gestures in apes and became involved in speech in the human ancestral line. Wild chimps can learn hand gestures and copy the local customs when they join another group (Cohen 2001). Waal (2001) discusses pointing in primates. Blackmore (2001) describes some intelligent behavior in chimps. Baboons exhibit evidence for abstract thought (Motluk 2001). Whiten and Boesch (2001) review the culture exhibited by chimps. Small (2001) reports male chimps hunt and share spoils.

Pre-humans

Aiello and Collard (2001), Balter (2001), and Balter and Gibbons (2001) discuss the previous year's find of Orrorin and its place in our family tree. Haile-Selassie (2001) reports on a new Late Miocene find of the hominid Ardipithecus. Leakey and others (2001) report on a new genus Kenyanthropus from the Middle Pliocene of East Africa. Ainsworth (2001) reports that, in addition to Homo species, Paranthropus' brain size also increased between 1.5 and 2.6 Mya. Evidence for termite foraging by early hominds is presented by Blackwell and d'Errico (2001).

Ron and Levy (2001) conclude that hominids first left Africa between 1.7 and 2.0 Mya. Bower (2001) reports that H. erectus reached Java about 1.5 Mya. Shipman (2001) presents a detailed biography of Eugene Dubois and his discovery of Java Man. Boaz and Ciochon (2001) present the modern interpretation of the Peking Man Zhoukoudian site. Peking Man may have occasionally occupied the site, but the fossil remains indicated he was prey to giant hyenas. Manzi, Mallegni and Ascenzzi (2001) describe a European cranium representing a bridge between Homo ergaster/erectus and later Middle Pleistocene Homo heidelbergensis.

Maddox (2001) reviews Solly Zuckerman: A Scientist out of the Ordinary by John Peyton. Zuckerman is a favorite of creationists because he once denied the hominid character of Australopithecus.

Neanderthals

Stringer and Davies (2001) report the latest views on the relations between Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons and their coexistence. Balter (2001) considers the extinction of the Neanderthals. Neanderthals were broad-based foragers exploiting a wide range of resources (Hardy and others 2001) but they apparently did not eat fish (Bower 2001c). They had greater grip strength than modern humans (Niewoehner 2001) but the similarity of their hands to us resulted in similarly made tools (Bower 2001a). They also took care of debilitated individuals (Lebel and others 2001). Ponce de Leon and Zollikofer (2001) report that the cranial and mandibular characters differentiating Neanderthals and modern humans arise early in development, perhaps prenatally. Comparison of Neanderthal and human children skeletons (and other hominids) is reported by Bower (2001b). Smith and others (2001) conclude that the successful recovery of Neanderthal DNA was made possible because the skeletons were preserved under cold conditions.

Modern Humans

Anatomically modern humans existed in Africa by 100 Kya but they were behaviorally primitive until about between 50 and 40 Kya. Only then did they expand into Eurasia (Klein 2001). Analyses of dental development in fossil hominins suggest that our lengthy growth processes arose quite late in evolution (Dean and others 2001). Kirchweger (2001) discusses the evolution of skin color in humans while Rosenberg and Trevathan (2001) discuss the evolution of human birth. A pregnant woman's need for aid during labor may have evolved with upright walking. White (2001) reviews the evidence for cannibalism in the human fossil record.

Culotta, Sugden and Hanson (2001) introduce a special section on human migrations in the March 2 issue of Science. Zhu and others (2001) found 1.36 Myo stone artifacts in northeast Asia. Pavlov, Svendsen and Indrelid (2001) describe a 40 Kyo human site in the European arctic. Humans were in Britain by 400-500 Kya (Keys 2001). The first appearance of neolithic culture from central Italy to Portugal occurred around 5400 bce and is probably explained by maritime pioneer colonization (Zilhao 2001). Manning and others (2001) report on radiocarbon dating dating a 1599 year long tree ring chronology from Anatolia which will help resolve problems in Assyrian-Mesopotamian chronology.

With regard to the ancestors of New World humans, skulls unearthed in Brazil look more like modern Africans and Australians than Asians or native Americans (Bower 2001). Other craniofacial studies indicated that the first New World inhabitants resembled people from Japan and Polynesia (Brace and others 2001). The earliest archaeological maize from highland Mexico is dated to 6,250 ya (Piperno and Flannery 2001). The early New World urban center of Carel on the central coast of Peru is dated from 2627 bce to 1977 bce (Solis, Haas and Creamer 2001).

Language and the capacity for symbolic art may be what sets us apart from the Neanderthals (Tattersall 2001). Valladas and others (2001) reviews the chronology of cave art while Holden (2001) reports on skeletons found in Cussac Cave, a newly discovered cave art site. Harder (2001) reports on paleolithic burial sites. Alroy (2001) presents a computer simulation model indicating that humans could have been responsible for the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. Roberts and others (2001) date the Australian megafauna die-off at about 45 Kya which rule out aridity at the Last Glacial Maximum as the cause. Miller (2001) discusses whether humans hunted mammoths to extinction or gave them lethal diseases.

Wolpoff, Hawks, Frayer and Hunley (2001) present evidence for their replacment theory. Soares (2001) discusses a Javan skull that supports the repacement theory. Svitil (2001) interviews Wolpoff.

DNA

Lindahl (2001) reviews the book The Molecule Hunt by M. Jones which reviews the role of DNA research in archaeology. Genetic data based on the Y chromosome (Ke and others 2001), autosomes and mitochondria (Takahata, Lee and Satta 2001) support the Out-of-Africa hypothesis.

Zimmer (2001) discusses the Y chromosome and the human geneological tree. An odd genetic sequence taken from a 60 Kyo Australian 'modern' man does not necessarily contradict the Out-of-Africa theory, but reveal an extinct mtDNA lineage (Adcock and others 2001). Sykes (2001) reconstructs the development of European populations based on mtDNA sequences. DNA evidence hints that all humans descended from speakers of South African "click" languages (Travis 2001).

Hacia (2001) summarizes the known differences between human and ape genomes. Johnson and others (2001) document positive selection and diversification of a gene family on a duplicated section on human chromosome 16 during the emergence of humans and African apes. New research shows that the same genes are expressed differently in human and chimp brains (Normile 2001). McCollum and Sharpe (2001) reviews the evolution of hominid teeth in terms of the developmental genetics of dental patterning and the control of tooth specification. Humans have a low level of genetic diversity compared to apes (Kaessmann, Wiebe, Weiss and Paabo 2001).

Chapter 5: Homology and Development

Homology

Mindell and Meyer (2001) discuss the criteria for defining the concept of homology. Dayton (2001) describes the extinction of the thylocine (marsupial wolf) while Su and others (2001) discuss the genetic diversity of red panda populations.

Development

Each year there are more and more research publications in the field of evo-devo (evolution and development). I will only mention a highly selected few in this review. Three recent books (Carol, Grenier, Weatherbee 2001; Davidson 2001; Wilkins 2002) present the field of evolutionary developmental genetics and introduce the reader to selector genes, signaling pathways, transcription factors, and cis-regulatory regions of target genes that make up the network of factors controlling and directing the development of the organism. The binding sites on the cis-regulatory regions are short (4-8 base-pairs long) rendering the network susceptible to mutational changes that result in macroevolution. Thus evolution results, not from new regulatory genes, but from changes in the way the conserved ones interact. Carol, Grenier and Weatherbee is the most accessible to the non-specialist reader. Downward (2001) provides a general review of signaling pathways.

In addition to the two genome duplications believed to have occurred early in vertebrate evolution, several papers investigate the possiblity of a third duplication in the lineage leading to the teleost fishes (Malaga-Trillo and Meyer 2001; McClintock and others 2001; Robertson-Rechavi and Laudet 2001).

Pearson (2001) reports on how the two disciplines of development and cell biology are interacting. Kirk (2001) studies the genetic basis for germ-soma differentiation in Volvox. Randerson and Hurst (2001) investigates how gametes may have specialized into eggs and sperm. Popodi and Raff (2001) review Hox genes in radially symmetrical echinoderms.

Cnidarians reveal intermediate stages in the evolution of Hox genes (Finnerty 2001). This is one of nine papers in a symposium: HOX clusters and the Evolution of Morphology. Schilling and Knight (2001) report on Hox gene regulation in chordates. This is one of twelve papers in a theme issue of the journal devoted to: Evolution, development and genome analysis. McGonnell (2001) reports on a developmental mechanisms symposium.

Various reports deal with eye formation (Baker 2001), wing formation (Giss and others 2001), leg segmentation (Rauskolb 2001) and tracheae development (Llimargas and Lawrence 2001) in Drosophila. The latter concludes that retaining a number of similar control genes allows more subtle forms of control and flexibility in evolution.

Fishman (2001) introduces the zebrafish, one of the developmental biologists' favorite organisms. Arendt, Technau and Wittbrodt (2001) report on the genetic basis of the bilaterian larval foregut. Galis and Alphen and Metz (2001) explain why five is the standard for fingers and toes and Svitil (2001b) reports that polydactyly is linked with shortened bones of the limbs in mice, making movement very awkward. Wang, Hu, Meng, and Li (2001) present new evidence relevant to the orgin of the mammalian middle ear. The patterning of the pharyngeal arches is discussed by Graham and Smith (2001) Galis (2001) looks at the origin of vertebrate appendicular muscle. Martin (2001) looks at limb formation in vertebrates while Tabin and Johnson (2001) review the formation of vertebrate segments.

Svitil (2001a) reports on Arabidopsis genes that transform leaves into flowers. Arendt and Wittbrodt (2001) present a great deal of comparative information on animal eyes. Szathmary (2001) reports on computer models of developmental phenomena. Cohen (2001) suggests the possibility of resurrecting extinct forms by reactivating turned-off gene systems in present-day orgamisms. Such atavisms occur naturally resulting in three-toed horses and whales with hind limbs.

Lagos-Quintana and others (2001) report on the discovery of a new class of tiny (about 22 nucleotides long) regulatory RNAs.

Chapter 6: Biochemical Similarities

Biochemical structures

Features of algal photosystems are investigated by Grabowski, Cunningham and Gantt (2001) and Jordan and others (2001). The structure of the bacterial flagellar prototfilament is investigated by Samatey and others (2001) while Kalir and others (2001) look at the multiple steps of flagellar assembly. Guterman (2001) discusses how new enzymes evolve. Trifonov and others (2001) discuss protein evolution. The evolution of vertebrate steroid receptors is an example of the Darwinian evolution of an irreducibly complex biochemical system (Thornton 2001). Sambrano and others (2001) investigate the role of thrombin signalling in the blood clotting mechanism.

The detailed structure of the entire ribosome reported by Yusupov and others (2001) helps explain its function at the molecular level. Maquire and Zimmerman (2001) review research on the ribosome and its function. Ent, Amos and Lowe (2001) discover a bacterial precursor for the eukaryote cytoskeleton.

Molecular systematics

Pennisi (2001) discusses the prospect of a project for a complete tree of life. Brown and others (2001) discuss universal trees (of domains, kingdoms and phyla) which are beyond the power of morphology while Dachs and Doolittle (2001) discuss the origin of the eukaryotes. King and Carroll (2001) present molecular data indicating a phylogenetic relationship between choanoflagellates and metazoons including possession by the former of a gene involved in animal development. Medina and others (2001) look at basal animal phylogenies based on large and small subunit rRNA. Borchiellini and others (2001) report that the sponges may be paraphyletic, the Calcarea being more related to Eumetazoa than to the siliceous sponges. Muller and others (2001) discuss genes shared by sponges and other metazoans. Miyata and Suga (2001) present evidence for two periods of gene duplication, one before and one after the Cambrian explosion. Neidart and others (2001) discuss genome duplications in early vertebrates.

Other molecular phylogenies include: bats (Nikaido and others 2001a; Lin and Penny 2001), murid rodents (Michaux, Reyes and Catzeflis 2001), teleosts (Miya, Kawaguchi and Nishida 2001), edentates (Delsuc and others 2001), early placentals (Murphy and others 2001), cetacean lineages (Nikaido and others 2001b), land snails (Wade, Mordan and Clarke 2001), arthropods (Giribet, Edgecombe and Wheeler 2001), amphibians (Zardoya and Meyer 2001) and australidelphian marsupials (Phillips and others 2001). Mammalian superfamial and interordinal clades are worked out by Liu and others (2001) and Dijk and others (2001). Mei Xu and Glazko (2001) estimate the divergence times of a number of groups: mice and rats (33 Mya), rodents and humans (96 Mya), eubacteria and eukaryotes (3 Bya), protists and other eukaryotes (1.7 Bya), plants, fungi and animals (1.3 Bya). Divergence times for major rodent groups are presented by Adkins and others (2001). Snakes exhibit high gene substitution rates (Hughes and Mouchiroud (2001).

DNA evidence suggests a Jurassic origin for angiosperms (Wikstrom, Savolainin and Chase 2001). The origin of flowering plants and their reproduction is reviewed by Friedman and Floyd (2001). Horsetails and ferns are the closest living relatives to seed plants (Pryer and others 2001), while the closest living relatives of land plants are the Charales (stoneworts) and Coleochaetales (Karol and others 2001). Lutzoni, Pagel and Reeb (2001) relate fungal ineages to lichen symbiotic ancestors.

Molecular data has elucidated the origin of many domestic animals including the horse (Vila and others 2001), cattle (Troy and others 2001), goats (Luikart and others 2001), pigs (Kijas and Anderson 2001), and llamas and alpacas (Kadwell and others 2001). Sato and others (2001) identify the grassquit Tiaris obscura as the nearest living relative of Darwin's finches.

Although much molecular systematics is done using ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial DNA, others have used various aspects of junk DNA. Thus Takahashi and others (2001a and b) base phylogeny of cichlid fishes on insertion patterns of SINES (short interspersed repetitive elements). Whelan and Goldman (2001) review the newest methods for analysing molecular data. Molecular data almost always supports and complements phylogenies based on morphological data, produces phylogenies among organisms with few morphological features or few such features in common, and dates divergences using molecular clocks. Zrzavy (2001) reviews one of the biggest discrepancies between morphological and molecular phylogenies - the relationship of the annelids to other invertebrates.

Summary

Ribozymes that can reproduce RNA and combine with proteins, the first draft of the human genome, the discovery of feathered dinosaurs, new whale fossils documenting the origin of the group, the new hominids, Orrorin, and Kenyanthropus, and tiny RNA regulatory genes highlight the year's activities. The special issue of Trends in Ecology and Evolution (July 2001) on speciation and the three new books on developmental biology provide rich sources of information on these fields.

There are a number of additional books that are relevant to this review. Peter Bentley's Digital Biology (New York: Simon & Schuster; 2001) reviews research on computer experiments on evolution. It also provides a lucid description of the human immune system. The Book of Life, edited by Stephen Gould (New York: W. W. Norton & Co.; 2001) is an illustrated history of the evolution of life on earth. Ernst May's What Evolution Is (New York: Basic Books; 2001) is an authoritative introduction for the non-specialist and layman to all aspects of evolution. Ron Redfern's Origins: The Evolution of Continents, Oceans and Life (Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 2001) is a wonderfully detailed and illustrated plate tectonics history of the earth. Carl Zimmer's Evolution: The Triumph of an Idea (New York: HarperCollins; 2001) is the companion to the recent PBS Series on evolution. Finally, Stephen Jones' Darwin's Ghost (New York: Ballantine Books; 1999) was overlooked in previous updates. Jones has rewritten The Origin of the Species utilizing modern research. This is an extremely useful and informative up-to-date summary of evolution.

REFERENCES: Chapter 1: The Origin of Life

(Early life)



Bell PJL. Viral Eukaryogenesis: Was the Ancestor of the Nucleus a Complex DNA Virus? Journal of Molecular Evolution 2001 Sep; 53(3): 251-256.

Copley J. The story of O. Nature 2001 Apr 19; 410: 862-864.

Catling DC, Zahnle KJ, McKay CP. Biogenic Methane, Hydrogen Escape, and the Irreversible Oxidation of Early Earth. Science 2001 Aug 3; 293: 839-843. See also: Kasting JF. The Rise of Atmospheric Oxygen. Science 2001 Aug 3; 293: 819-820.

Dismukes GC, and others. The origin of atmospheric oxygen on Earth: The innovation of oxygenic photosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 27; 98(5): 2170-2175.

Gibbs WW. Out in the Cold. Scientific American 2001 Mar; 284(3): 16-17.

Grassineau NV and others. Antiquity of the biological sulphur cycle: evidence from sulphur and carbon isotopes in 2700 million-year-old rocks of the Belingwe Belt, Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Jan 22; 268(1463): 113-119.

Hazen RM. Life's Rocky Start. Scientific American 2001 Apr; 285(4): 76-85.

Hoehler TM, Bebout BM, Marais DJDes. The role of microbial mats in the production of reduced gases on the early Earth. Nature 2001 Jul 19; 412: 324-327. See also: Jorgensen BB. Space for hydrogen. Nature 2001 Jul 19; 412: 286-289.

Irion R. Say the magic words. New Scientist 2001 Jun 9; 170(2294): 32-35.

Javaux E, Knoll AH, Walter MR. Morphological and ecological complexity in early eukaryotic ecosystems. Nature 2001 Jul 5; 412: 66-69.

Johnson WK and others. RNA-Catalyzed RNA Polymerization: Accurate and General RNA-Templated Primer Extension. Science 2001 May 18; 292: 1319-1325. See also: Davenport RJ. Making Copies in the RNA world. Science 2001 May 18; 292: 1278; Strobel SA. Repopulating the RNA world. Nature 2001 Jun 28; 411: 1003-1006; Anonymous. Life's first letters. New Scientist 2001 May 26; 170(2292): 27.

Kintisch E. Is Life that Simple? Discover 2001 Apr; 22(4): 66-71.

Netting J. RNA world gets support as prelife scenario. Science News 2001 Apr 7; 159(14): 212.

Orme CA and others. Formation of chiral morphologies through selective binding of amino acids to calcite surface steps. Nature 2001 Jun 14; 411: 775-779. See also: Addada L and Weiner S. Crystal, asymmetry and life. Nature 2001 Jun 4; 411: 753-756; Gorman J. Rocks May Have Given a Hand to Life. Science News 2001 May 5; 159(18): 276.

Phoenix VR and others. Role of biomineralization as an ultraviolet shield: Implications for Archean life. Geology 2001 Sep; 29(9): 823-826.

Ribo JM and others. Chiral Sign Induction by Vortices During the Formation of Mesophases in Stirred Solutions. Science 2001 Jun 15; 292: 2063-2066. See also: Feringa BL. A New Twist on Chirality. Science 2001 Jun 15; 292: 2021-2022; Matteson DS. Chiral Selection When Stirred, not Shaken. [letter] Science 2001 Aug 24; 293: 1435-1436.

Saghatellan A, and others. A chiroselective peptide replicator. Nature 2001 Feb 15; 409: 797-801. See also: Siegel JS. Single-handed cooperation. Nature 2001 Feb 15; 409: 777-778.

Shen Y, Buick R, Canfield DE. Isotopic evidence for microbial sulphate reduction in the early Archaean era. Nature 2001 Mar 1; 410: 77-81.

Sleep NH. Oxygenating the atmosphere. Nature 2001 Mar 15; 410: 317-319. See also: Anonymous. Bug Breath. New Scientist 2001 Feb 3; 169(2276): 21.

Sowerby SJ, and others. Differential adsorption of nucleic acid bases: Relevance to the origin of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jan 20; 98(3): 820-822.

Szostak JW, Bartel DP, Luisi PL. Synthesizing life. Nature 2001 Jan 18; 409: 387-390.

Takemura M. Poxviruses and the Origin of the Eukaryotic Nucleus. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2001 May; 52(5): 419-425.

Wilde SA, Valley JW, Peck WH, Graham CM. Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago. Nature 2001 Jan 11; 409: 175-178. See also: Mojzsis SJ, Harrison TM, Pidgeon RT. Oxygen-isotope evidence from ancient zircons for liquid water at the Earth's surface 4,300 Myr ago. Nature 2001 Jan 11; 409: 178-181; Halliday AN. In the beginning... Nature 2001 Jan 11; 409: 144-145; Anonymous. Primeval crystal. New Scientist 2001 Jan 13; 169(2273): 23.

(Life from space)



Blake DF, Jenniskens P. The Ice of Life. Scientific American 2001 Aug; 285(2): 44-51.

Cooper G, and others. Carbonaceous meteorites as a source of suger-related organic compounds for the early Earth. Nature 2001 Dec 20/27; 414: 879-883. See also: Sephton MA. Life's sweet beginnings? Nature 2001 Dec 20/27; 414: 857-858; Cowen R. Did Space Rocks Deliver Sugar? Science News 2001 Dec 22 & 29; 160(25&26): 388.

Delsemme AH. An Argument for the Cometary Origin of the Biosphere. American Scientist 2001 Sep-Oct; 89(5): 432-442. See also: Lunine JI. Cold Beginnings. [letter]. American Scientist 2001 Nov-Dec; 89(6): 484.

Dworkin JP and others. Self-assembling amphiphilic molecules: Synthesis in simulated interstellar/precometary ices. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jan 30; 98(3): 815-819. See also: Cowen R. Life's Housing May Come from Space. Science News 2001 Feb 3; 159(5): 68; Svitil KA. Interstellar seeds of life. Discover 2001 Jul; 23(7): 13; Spotts PN. Raw materials for life may predate Earth's formation. Christian Science Monitor (January 30, 2001).

Ehrenfreund P, and others. Extraterrestrial amino acids in Orgueil and Ivuna: Tracing the parent body of CI type carbonaceous chondrites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 27; 98(5): 2138-2141. See also: Anonymous. Simple recipe. New Scientist 2001 Mar 10; 169(2281): 27.

Gorman J. Cosmic Chemistry Gets Creative. Science News 2001 May 19; 159(20): 317-319.

Robert F. The Origin of Water on Earth. Science 2001 Aug 10; 293: 1056-1058.

Samuel E. Frosty space dust may have seeded life. New Scientist 2001 Mar 3; 169(2280): 18.

(Other worlds)



Anonymous. Water on Mars. New Scientist 2001 Dec 15; 172(2321): 27.

Abbott A. Resuscitated 'alien' microbes stir up an Italian storm. Nature 2001 May 17; 411: 229.

Chyba CF, Hand KP. Life Without Photosynthesis. Science 2001 Jun 15; 292: 2026-2027.

Coughlin BC. Searching for an alien haven in the heavens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jan 10; 98(3): 796.

Cooper M. Mars on ice. New Scientist 2001 Jun 23; 170(2296): 13.

Garlick MA. Ideal homes. New Scientist 2001 Apr 7; 170(2285): 18.

Gee H. Nature insight: Astrobiology. Nature 2001 Feb 23; 409: 1079.

Hecht J. Life will find a way. New Scientist 2001 Mar 17; 169(2282): 4.

Irion R. Did Life on Earth Come from Mars? Discover 2001 Aug; 23(8): 64-69.

Jones N. In the pink. New Scientist 2001 Dec 8; 172(2320): 9.

Kerr RA. Rethinking Water on Mars And the Origin of Life. Science 2001 Apr 6; 292: 398-40.

Knight J. Deep waters. New Scientist 2001 Jan 6; 169(2272): 11.

Le Page M. Alien footprints. New Scientist 2001 Jun 2; 170(2292): 12.

Lunine JI. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jan 30; 98(3): 809-814.

McCord TB, Hansen GB, Hibbitts CA. Hydrated Salt Minerals on Ganymede's Surface: Evidence of an Ocean Below. Science 2001 May 25; 292: 1523-1525.

McSween HYJr and others. Geochemical evidence for magmatic water within Mars from pyroxenes in the Shergotty meteorite. Nature 2001 Jan 25; 487-490. See also: Cowen R. Ancient Mars water: A deep source? Science News 2001 Feb 24; 159(8): 123.

Mustard JF, Cooper CD, Rifkin MK. Evidence for recent climate change on Mars from the identification of youthful near-surface ground ice. Nature 2001 Jul 26; 412: 411-414.

Phillips RJ and others. Ancient Geodynamics and Global-Scale Hydrology on Mars. Science 2001 Mar 30; 291: 2587-2591. See also: Cowen R. Creating a warmer, wetter Mars. Science News 2001 Mar 24; 159(12): 184.

Ruiz J. The stability against freezing of an internal liquid-water ocean in Callisto. Nature 2001 Jul 26; 412: 409-411. See also: Bennett KA. Uncool Callisto. Nature 2001 Jul 26; 412: 395-396.

Schenk PM and others. Flooding of Ganymede's bright terrains by low-viscosity water-ice lavas. Nature 2001 Mar 1; 410: 57-60. See also: Prockter LM. Icing Ganymede. Nature 2001 Mar 1; 25-27; McCook A. Otherworldly Ocean. Scientific American 2001 May; 284(5): 25.

Thomas-Keprta KL, and others. Truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite crystals in ALH84001: Presumptive biosignatures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 27; 98(5): 2164-2169. See also: Friedmann EI, and others. Chains of magnetite crystals in the meteorite ALH84001: Evidence of biological origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 27; 98(5): 2176-2181; Lorenz R. Mars Attracts! New Scientist 2001 May 19; 179(2291): 38-40; Kerr RA. Are Martian 'Pearl Chains' Signs of Life? Science 2001 Mar 9; 291: 1875-1876; Cowen R. Debate over life in Mars rock rekindles. Science News 2001 Mar 10; 159(10): 150; Anonymous. Martian compasses. New Scientist 2001 Mar 3; 169(2280): 12.

For a dissenting opinion see:

Buseck PR, and others. Magnetite morphology and life on Mars. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Nov 20; 98(24): 13490-13495.

Turtle EP, Pierazzo E. Thickness of a Europan Ice Shell from Impact Crater Simulations. Science 2001 Nov 9; 294: 1326-1328. See also: Kerr RA. Putting a Lid on Life on Europa. Science 2001 Nov 9; 294: 1258-1259; Hecht J. It's not unusual. New Scientist 2001 Mar 17; 169(2282): 10.

REFERENCES: Chapter 2: Genetics and Evolution

(Mutation)



Chicurel M. Can Organisms Speed Their Own Evolution? Science 2001 Jun 8; 292: 1824-1827.

Giraud A and others. Costs and Benefits of High Mutation Rates: Adaptive Evolution of Bacteria in the Mouse Gut. Science 2001 Mar 30; 291: 2606-2609.

Harder B. The Seeds of Malaria. Science News 2001 Nov 10; 160(19): 296-298.

Modlano D, and others. Haemoglobin C protects against clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 2001 Nov 15; 414: 305-308. See also: Randerson J. Fighting fit. New Scientist 2001 Nov 17; 172(2317): 23.

Svital KA. End of Ascent. Discover 2001 May; 22(5): 10.

(Natural selection)



Amundsen T, Forsgren E. Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Nov 6; 98(23): 13155-13160.

Arnold FH. Combinatorial and computational challenges for biocatalyst design. Nature 2001 Jan 11; 409: 253-257.

Brookfield JFY. Predicting the future. Nature 2001 Jun 28; 411: 999.

Emlen DJ. Costs and the Diversification of Exaggerated Animal Structures. Science 2001 Feb 23; 291: 1534-1536. See also: Harvey PH and Godfray CJ. Science 2001 Feb 23; 291: 1505-1506.

Engqvist L, Sauer KP. Strategic male mating effort and cryptic male choice in a scorpionfly. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Apr 7; 268(1468): 729-735.

Gavrilets S, Arnqvist G, Friberg U. The evolution of female mate choice by sexual conflict. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Mar 7; 268(1466): 331-339.

Hoekstra HE and others. Strength and tempo of directional selection in the wild. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jul 31; 98(16): 9157-9160.

Johnson NA. Do tierran programs dream of darwinian dynamics? Trends in Genetics 2001 Sep; 17(9): 491-492.

Karubian J, Swaddle JP. Selection on females can create 'larger males'. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Apr 7; 268(1468): 725-728.

Kingsolver JG and others. The Strength of Phenotypic Selection in Natural Populations. The American Naturalist 2001 Mar; 157(3): 245-261. See also: Conner JK. How strong is natural selection? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 May; 16(5): 215-217.

Lemly B. Machines that think. Discover 2001 Jan; 22(1): 74-79.

Losos JB. Evolution: A Lizard's Tale. Scientific American 2001 Mar; 284(3): 64-69.

Moore AJ and others. Sexual conflict and the evolution of female mate choice and male social dominance. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Mar 7; 268(1466): 517-523.

Park KJ, Buchanan KL, Evans MR. Sexy streamers? The role of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of hirundine tail streamers. Evolution 2001 Feb; 55(2): 445-446. See also: Matyjasiak P, Jablonski PG. Hypothetical mechanisms of the initial evolution of sexually dimorphic tail streamers in Hirundinidae. Evolution 2001 Feb; 55(2): 446-448.

Wakefield J. Complexity's Business Model. Scientific American 2001 Jan; 284(1): 31-34.

Yano T, Kagamiyama H. Directed evolution of ampicillin-resistant activity from a functionally unrelated DNA fragment: A laboratory model of molecular evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jan 30; 98(3): 903-907.

Zimmer C. Tuning In. Natural History 2001a Sep; 110(7): 16-20.

Zimmer C. Alternative Life Styles. Natural History 2001b May; 110(4): 42-45.

(Sex)



Agrawal AF. Sexual selection and the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Nature 2001 Jun 7; 411: 692-695.

Brown AJ, Casselton LA. Mating in mushrooms: increasing the chances but prolonging the affair. Trends in Genetics 2001 Jul; 17(7): 393-400.

Jegalian K, Lahn BT. Why the Y is So Weird. Scientific American 2001 Feb; 284(2): 56-61.

Rice WR, Chippindale AK. Sexual Recombination and the Power of Natural Selection. Science 2001 Oct 19; 294: 555-559. See also: Lenski RE. Come Fly, and Leave the Baggage Behind. Science 2001 Oct 19; 294: 533-534.

Ridley M. Sex, Errors and the Genome. Natural History 2001a Jun; 110(5): 42-51.

Ridley M. The Cooperative Gene. New York: The Free Press; 2001. See also: Berry A. Mitigating mutations. Nature 2001 Jul 26; 412: 379-380.

Siller S. Sexual selection and the maintenance of sex. Nature 2001 Jun 7; 411: 689-692.

(Transposons)



Arkhipova IR, Morrison HG. Three retrotransposon families in the genome of Giardia lamblia: Two telomeric, one dead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Dec 4; 98(25): 14497-14502.

Hughes JF, Coffin JM. Evidence for genomic rearrangement mediated by human endogenous retroviruses during primate evolution. Nature Genetics 2001 Dec; 29(4): 487-489.

Kidwell MG, Lisch DR. Perspective: Transposable elements, parasitic DNA, and genome evolution. Evolution 2001 Jan; 55(1): 1-24.

Yu V and others. Birth of a Gene: Locus of Neuronal BC200 snmRNA in Three Prosimians and Human BC200 Pseudogenes as Archives of Change in the Anthropoidea Lineage. Journal of Molecular Biology 2001 Jun 22; 309(5): 1049-1066.

(Genomes)



Balter M. Sequencing Set for Dreaded Mosquito. Science 2001 Mar 9; 291: 1873.

Bennetzen JL Arabidopsis arrives. Nature Genetics 2001 Jan; 27(1): 3-5. See also Willmann MR. Arabidopsis enters the post-sequencing era. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Feb; 17(2): 72-73; Sanderfoot AA, Raikhel NV. Arabidopsis could shed light on human genome. Nature 2001 Mar 15; 410: 299.

Butler D. Mouse genome roars ahead with new map. Nature 2001 Oct 4; 413: 444.

Coughlan A. Banana bonanza. New Scientist 2001 Jul 21; 171(2300): 7. See also: Gewolb J. DNA Sequencers To Go Bananas? Science 2001 Jul 27; 293: 585-586; Anonymous. International body aims to unpeel the banana genome. Nature 2001 Jul 26; 412: 368.

Cyranoski D. Japan's ape sequencing effort set to unravel the brain's secrets. Nature 2001 Feb 8; 409: 651-652.

Davenport RJ. Syngenta Finishes, Consortium Goes On. Science 2001 Feb 2; 291: 807.

Deloukas P, and others. The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20. Nature 2001 Dec 20/27; 414: 865-871. See also: Hattori M, Taylor TD. Part three in the book of genes. Nature 2001 Dec 20/27; 854-856.

Douglas S and others. The highly reduced genome of an enslaved algal nucleus. Nature 2001 Apr 26; 410: 1091-1096. See also: Gilson PR and McFadden GI. A grin without a cat. Nature 2001 Apr 26; 410: 1040-1041; Pearlman RE. Lessons from a small genome. Nature Genetics 2001 May; 28(1): 6-7.

Gewolb J. Animals Line Up to Be Sequenced. Science 2001 Jul 20; 293: 409-410.

Glausiusz J. A Garden of Genomes. Discover 2001 Mar; 22(3): 14.

Helmuth L. Map of the Human Genome 3.0. Science 2001 Jul 27; 293: 583-584.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 2001 Feb 15; 409: 860-921.

Karlin S, Bergman A, and Gentles AJ. Annotation of the Drosophila genome. Nature 2001 May 17; 411: 259-260.

Katsanis N, Worley KC, Lupski JR. An evaluation of the draft human genome sequence. Nature Genetics 2001 Sep; 29(1): 88-91.

Kintisch E. So what's the score? New Scientist 2001 May 12; 170(2290): 16.

Lee C. The incredible shrinking Human Genome. Trends in Genetics 2001 Apr; 17(4): 187-188.

Leyser O. Summitting the Arabidopsis genome. Trends in Genetics 2001 Apr; 17(4): 185-187.

Lynch M. The molecular natural history of the human genome. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Aug; 16(8): 420-422.

Marshall E. Celera Assembles Mouse Genome; Public Labs Plan New Strategy. Science 2001a May 4; 292: 822-823.

Marshall E. Rat Genome Spurs an Unusual Partnership. Science 2001b Mar 9; 291: 1872-1873.

Martienssen R, McCombie WR. The First Plant Genome. Cell 2001 Jun 1; 105(5): 571-574.

Patil N, and others. Blocks of Limited Haplotype Diversity Revealed by High-Resolution Scanning of Human Chromosome 21. Science 2001 Nov 23; 294: 1719-1723. See also: Kwok P-Y. Genetic Association by Whole-Genome Analysis? Science 2001 Nov 23; 294: 1669-1670.

Pennisi E. New Genomes Shed Light on Complex Cells. Science 2001 May 18; 292: 1280-1281.

Ponting CP. Plagiarized bacterial genes in the human book of life. Trends in Genetics 2001 May; 17(5): 235-237. See also: Salzberg SL and others. Microbial Genes in the Human Genome: Lateral Transfer or Gene Loss? Science 2001 Jun 8; 292: 1903-1906; Stanhope MJ and others. Phylogenetic analyses do not support horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to vertebrates. Nature 2001 Jun 21; 411: 940-944; Roelofs J, Van Haastert PJM. Genes lost during evolution. Nature 2001 Jun 28; 411: 1013-1014; Ainsworth C. Not so jumpy. New Scientist 2001 Jun 23; 170(2296): 15; Andersson JO, Doolittle WF, Nesbo CL. Are There Bugs in Our Genome? Science 2001 Jun 8; 292: 1848-1850.

Seo H-C, and others. Miniature Genome in the Marine Chordate Oikopleura dioica. Science 2001 Dec 21; 294: 2506.

Shields R. The emperor's new clothes. Trends in Genetics 2001 Apr; 17(4): 188.

Travis J. Puffer Fish Genomes Swim into View. Science News 2001 Nov 3; 160(18): 276.

Venter JC and others. The Sequence of the Human Genome. Science 2001 Feb 16; 291: 1304-1351. See also: Netting J and Wang L. The Newly Sequenced Genome Bares All. Science News 2001 Feb 17; 159(7): 100.

(Genome related research)



Achaz G, Netter P, Coissac E. Study of Intrachromosomal Duplications Among the Eukaryotic Genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2001 Dec; 18(2): 2280-2288.

Andersson JO, Andersson SGE. Pseudogenes, Junk DNA, and the Dynamics of Rickettsia Genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2001 May; 18(5): 829-839.

Charlesworth D, Charlesworth B, McVean AT. Genome sequences and evolutionary biology, a two-way interaction. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 May; 16(5): 235-242.

Eichler EE. Recent duplication, domain accretion and the dynamic mutation of the human genome. Trends in Genetics 2001 Nov; 17(11): 661-669.

Friedman R. Bacterial Revelations. Natural History 2001 Jun; 110(5): 52-57.

Hirsh AE, Fraser HB. Protein dispensability and rate of evolution. Nature 2001 Jun 28; 411: 1046-1049.

Huynen MA, Snel B, Bork P. Inversions and the dynamics of eukaryotic gene order. Trends in Genetics 2001 Jun; 17(6): 304-306.

Kuhn G, Hijri M, Sanders IR. Evidence for the evolution of multiple genomes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature 2001 Dec 17; 414: 745-748. For a general background on these fungi see: Bever JD and others. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: More Diverse than Meets the Eye, and the Ecological Tale of Why. BioScience 2001 Nov; 51(11): 923-931.

Massingham T, Davies L, Lio P. Analysing gene function after duplication. BioEssays 2001 Oct; 23(10): 873-876.

Pennisi E. Genome Duplications: The Stuff of Evolution? Science 2001 Dec 21; 294: 2458-2460.

Petrov DA. Evolution of genome size: new approaches to an old problem. Trends in Genetics 2001 Jan; 17(1): 23-28.

Van de Peer Y, Taylor S, Braasch I, Meyer A. The Ghost of Selection Past: Rates of Evolution and Functional Divergence of Anciently Duplicated Genes. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2001 Oct/Nov; 53(4/5): 436-446.

Wagner A. Birth and death of duplicated genes in completely sequenced eukaryotes. Trends in Genetics 2001 May; 17(5): 237-239.

(Genetic code)



Ardell DH, Sella G. On the Evolution of Redundancy in Genetic Codes. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2001 Oct/Nov; 53(4/5): 269-281.

Atkins JF, Gesteland RF. mRNA readout at 40. Nature 2001 Dec 13; 414: 693.

Knight RD, Landweber LF, Yarus M. How Mitochondria Redefine the Code. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2001 Oct/Nov; 53(4/5): 299-313. See also: Yokobori S-i, Suzuki T, Watanabe K. Genetic Code Variations in Mitochondria: tRNA as a Major Determinant of Genetic Code Plasticity. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2001 Oct/Nov; 53(4/5): 314-326.

O'Sullivan JM, Davenport JB, Tuite MF. Codon reassignment and the evolving genetic code: problems and pitfalls in post-genome analysis. Trends in Genetics 2001 Jan; 17(1): 20-22.

Wang L and others. Enlarging the Genetic Code of Escherichia coli. Science 2001 Apr 20; 292: 498-500. See also: Doring V and others. Enlarging the Amino Acid Set of Escherichia coli by Infiltration of the Valine Coding Pathway. Science 2001 Apr 20; 292: 501-504; Bock A. Invading the Genetic Code. Science 2001 Apr 20; 292: 453-454.

For background on the evolution of the genetic code see:

Osawa S. Evolution of the Genetic Code. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1995.

(Macroevolution)



Carroll SB. The big picture. Nature 2001a Feb 8; 409: 669.

Carroll SB Chance and necessity: the evolution of morphological complexity and diversity. Nature 2001b Feb 22; 409: 1102-1109.

(Miscellaneous)



Barash DP. Why Bad Things Have Happened to Good Creatures. The Chronicle of Higher Education 2001 Aug 17; XLVIII(49): B13..

Bensasson D and others. Mitochondrial pseudogenes: evolution's misplaced witnesses. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Jun; 16(6): 314-321.

Comfort NC. Are Genes Real? Natural History 2001 Jun; 110(5): 28-37.

Duret L. Why do genes have introns? Recombination might add a new piece to the puzzle. Trends in Genetics 2001 Apr; 17(4): 172-175.

Fedorov A, and others. Intron distribution difference for 276 ancient and 131 modern genes suggests the existence of ancient introns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Nov 6; 98(23): 13177-13182.

Glausiusz J. Dark Side of the Genome. Discover 2001 Jun; 22(6): 14.

Henze K, Martin W. How do mitochondrial genes get into the nucleus? Trends in Genetics 2001 Jul; 17(7): 383-387.

Ingvarsson PK. Restoration of genetic variation lost - the genetic rescue hypothesis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Feb; 16(2): 62-63.

Margulis L, Sagan D. The Beast with Five Genomes. Natural History 2001 Jun; 110(5): 38-41.

Pennisi E. Sequences Reveal Borrowed Genes. Science 2001 Nov 23; 294: 1634-1635.

Pietrokovski S. Intein spread and extinction in evolution. Trends in Genetics 2001 Aug; 17(8): 465-472.

Podos J. Correlated evolution of morphology and vocal signal structure in Darwin's finches. Nature 2001 Jan 11; 409: 185-188. See also: Ryan MJ. Food, song and speciation. Nature 2001 Jan 11; 409: 139-140.

Selosse M-A, Albert B, and Godelle B. Reducing the genome size of organelles favours gene transfer to the nucleus. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Mar; 16(3): 135-141.

Weeks AR and others. A Mite Species That Consists Entirely of Haploid Females. Science 2001 Jun 29; 292: 2479-2482. See also: Otto SP and Jarne P. Haploids -- Hapless or Happening? Science 2001 Jun 29; 292: 2447-2443; Muir H. Mighty mite. New Scientist 2001 Jul 7; 171(2298): 20.

Zimmer C. Us and Them. Natural History 2001 Nov; 110(9): 20-23.

REFERENCES: Chapter 3: The Origin of Species



Alipaz JA, Wu C-I, Karr TL. Gametic incompatibilities between races of Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Apr 22; 268(1469): 789-795.

Barton NH. Speciation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Jul; 16(7): 325.

Bordenstein SR, O'Hara FP, Werren JH. Wolbachia-induced incompatibility precedes other hybrid incompatibilities in Nasonia. Nature 2001 Feb 8; 409: 707-710. See also: Wade MJ. Infectious speciation. Nature 2001 Feb 8; 409: 675-677; Alpert M. Species-Making Bacteria. Scientific American 2001 Apr; 284(4): 29.

Boughman JW. Divergent sexual selection enhances reproductive isolation in sticklebacks. Nature 2001 Jun 21; 411: 944-948. See also: Ryan MJ. Seeing red in speciation. Nature 2001 Jun 21; 411: 900-901.

Butlin R, Ritchie MG. Searching for speciation genes. Nature 2001 Jul 5; 412: 31-33.

Corti M, Rohlf FJ. Chromosomal speciation and phenotypic evolution in the house mouse. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 2001 May; 73(1): 99-112.

Doi M and others. A locus for female discrimination behavior causing sexual isolation in Drosophila. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jun 5; 98(12): 6714-6719.

Fryer G. On the age and origin of the species flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Jun 7; 268(1472): 1147-1152.

Harrison RG. Diverse origins of biodiversity. Nature 2001 Jun 7; 411: 635-636.

Hawthorne DJ, Via S. Genetic linkage of ecological specialization and reproductive isolation in pea aphids. Nature 2001 Aug 30; 412: 904-907.

Irwin DE, Bensch S, Price TD. Speciation in a ring. Nature 2001 Jan 18; 409: 333-337. See also: Wake DB. Speciation in the round. Nature 2001 Jan 18; 409: 299-300; Milius S. Warblers make species in a ring. Science News 2001 Jan 20; 159(3): 40.

Jiggins CD and others. Reproductive isolation caused by colour pattern mimicry. Nature 2001 May 17; 411: 302-305. See also: Milius S. Alarming Butterflies and Go-Getter Fish. Science News 2001 Jul 21; 160(3): 42-44.

Johannesson K. Parallel speciation: a key to sympatric divergence. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Mar; 16(3): 148-153. See also: Schluter D, Boughman JW, and Rundle HD. Parallel speciation with allopatry. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Jun; 16(6): 283-284.

Kaufman L. Most Excellent of Fishes. Natural History 2001 May; 110(4): 84-85.

Markert JA, Danley PD, and Arnegard ME. New markers for new species: microsatellite loci and the East African cichlids. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Feb; 16(2): 100-107.

Martinsen GD, and others. Hybrid populations selectively filter gene introgression between species. Evolution 2001 Jul; 55(7): 1325-1335.

Meyer A. Evolutionary celebrities. Nature 2001 Mar 1; 410: 1718.

Michalak P, and others. Genetic evidence for adaptation-driven incipient speciation of Drosophila melanogaster along a microclimate contrast in "Evolution Canyon," Israel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Nov 6; 98(23): 13195-13200.

Murray AM. The oldest fossil cichlids (Teleostei: Perciformes): indication of a 45 million-year-old species flock. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Apr 7; 268(1468): 679-684.

Naisbit RE, Jiggins CD, Mallet J. Disruptive sexual selection against hybrids contributes to speciation between Heliconius cydno and Heliconius melpomene. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Sep 7; 268(1478): 1849-1854.

Noor MA and others. Chromosomal inversions and the reproductive isolation of species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 OCt 9; 98(21): 12084-12088.

Peichel CL, and others. The genetic architecture of divergence between three-spine stickleback species. Nature 2001 Dec 20/27; 414: 901-905.

Ritchie MG. Chronic speciation in periodical cicadas. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Feb; 16(2): 59-61.

Roca AL and others. Genetic Evidence for Two Species of Elephant in Africa. Science 2001 Aug 24; 293: 1473-1477. See also: Vogel G. African Elephant Species Splits in Two. Science 2001 Aug 24; 293: 1414; Milius S. Geneticists define new elephant species. Science News 2001 Sep 8; 160(10): 155.

Sturnbauer C and others. Lake Level Fluctuations Synchronize Genetic Divergences of Cichlid Fishes in African Lakes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2001 Feb; 18(2): 144-154.

Swanson WJ and others. Positive Darwinian selection drives the evolution of several female reproductive proteins in mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 27; 98(5): 2509-2514.

Taylor JS, Peer YVde, Meyer A. Genome duplication, divergent resolution and speciation. Trends in Genetics 2001 June; 17(6): 299-301.

Ting C-T, Takahashi A, and Wu C-I. Incipient speciation by sexual isolation in Drosophila: Concurrent evolution at multiple loci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jun 5; 98(12): 6709-6713.

Veen T and others. Hybridization and adaptive mate choice in flycatchers. Nature 2001 May 3; 411: 48-50. See also: Hasselquist D. Hybrid costs avoided. Nature 2001 May 3; 411: 34-35; Guterman L. Wehn Mr. Wrong is Mr. Right. The Chronicle of Higher Education 2001 Jun 8; XLVII(39): A16; Milius S. For some birds, Mr. Wrong can be alright. Science News 2001 May 5; 159(18): 278.

REFERENCES: Chapter 4: The Fossil Record

(New fossils)



Archibald JD, Averianov AO, Ekdale EG. Late Cretaceous relatives of rabbits, rodents, and other extant eutherian mammals. Nature 2001 Nov 1; 414: 62-65.

Caldwell MW, Lee MSY. Live birth in Cretaceous marine lizards (mosasauroids) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Dec 7; 268: 2397-2401.

Chen J-Y, Vannier J, Huang D-Y. The origin of crustaceans: new evidence from the Early Cambrian of China. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Nov 7; 268(1482): 2181-2187.

Chiappe LM, Salgado L, Corla RA. Embryonic Skulls of Titanosaur Sauropod Dinosaurs. Science 2001 Sep 28; 293: 2444-2446. See also: Stokstad E. Unhatched Eggs Help Dinos Get a Head. Science 2001 Sep 28; 293: 2371; Anonymous. Baby Titans. New Scientist 2001 Oct 6; 172(2311): 27; Glausiusz J. Secrets of Ancient Dinosaur Eggs. Discover 2002 Jan; 23(1): 12.

Cicimurri DJ, Everhart MJ. An Elasmosaur with Stomach Contents and Gastroliths from the Pierre Shale (Late Cretaceous) of Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 2001 Oct; 104(3-4): 129-143.

Domning DP. The earliest known fully quadrupedal sirenian. Nature 2001 Oct 13; 413: 625-627. See also: Anonymous. Ancient sea cow. New Scientist 2001 Oct 13; 172(2312): 27.

Frils EM, Pedersen KR, Crane PR. Fossil evidence of water lilies (Nymphaeales) in the Early Cretaceous. Nature 2001 Mar 15; 410: 357-360.

Gao K-Q, Shubin NH. Late Jurassic salamanders from northern China. Nature 2001 Mar 29; 410: 574-577. See also: Carroll R. Chinese salamanders tell tales. Nature 2001 Mar 29; 410: 534-536; Rist C. On Golden Pond. Discover 2002 Jan; 23(1): 48.

Krauss DW. Fossil molar from a Madagascan marsupial. Nature 2001 Aug 2; 412: 497-498.

Luo Z-X, Crompton AW, Sun A-L. A New Mammaliaform from the Early Jurassic and Evolution of Mammalian Characteristics. Science 2001 May 25; 292: 1535-1540. See also: Wyss A. Digging Up Fresh Clues About the Origin of Mammals. Science 2001 May 25; 292: 1496-1497; Perkins S. Early Mammal's Jaw Lost Its Groove. Science News 2001 May 26; 159(21): 324; Hecht J. Jurassic pipsqueak. New Scientist 2001 Jun 2; 179(2292): 18; Rist C. Tinysaurus. Discover 2002 Jan; 23(1): 43.

Modesto S, Sues H-D, Damiani R. A new Triassic procolophonoid reptile and its implications for procolophonoid survivorship during the Permo-Triassic extinction event. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Oct 7; 268(1480): 2047-2052.

Perkins S. First brachiosaur tooth found in Asia. Science News 2001a Mar 15; 159(10): 159.

Perkins S. Large shadows fell on Cretaceous landscape. Science News 2001b Oct 13; 160(15): 231. See also: Jurassic Park's flying circus. New Scientist 2001 Dec 13; 172(2312): 14.

Rogers KC, Forster CA. The last of the dinosaur titans: a new sauropod from Madagascar. Nature 2001 Aug 2; 412: 530-534. See also: Perkins S. Completing a titan by getting a head Science News 2001 Sep 1; 160(9): 143.

Rybczynski N, Reisz RR. Earliest evidence for efficient oral processing in a terrestrial herbivore. Nature 2001 Jun 7; 411: 684-687. See also: Glausiusz J. The Meatless Shall Inherit the Earth. Discover 2001 Sep; 22(9): 12.

Sampson SD, Carrano MT, Forster CA. A bizarre predatory dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Nature 2001 Jan 25; 409: 504-506. See also: Perkings S. Rock guitarist inspires rock hounds. Science News 2001 Jan 27; 159(4): 52; Rist C. Rock and Roll Dino. Discover 2002 Jan; 23(1): 47.

Sereno PC, Larsson HCE, Sidor CA, Gado B. The Giant Crocodyliform Sarcosuchus from the Cretaceous of Africa. Science 2001 Nov 16; 294: 1516-1519. See also: Perkins S. Fossils Indicate ... Wow, What a Croc! Science News 2001 Oct 27; 160(17): 260.

Shu D-G, Chen L, Han J, Zhang X-L. An Early Cambrian tunicate from China. Nature 2001 May 24; 411: 472-473.

Shu D-G and others. Primitive deuterostomes from the Chengjiang Lagerstatte (Lower Cambrian, China). Nature 2001 Nov 22; 414: 419-424. See also: Gee H. On being vetulicolian. Nature 2001 Nov 22; 414: 407-409; Marchant J. The giant tadpole that spawned us all. New Scientist 2001 Nov 24; 172(2318): 6.

Schubert C. Two new dinosaurs chiseled from fossil gap. Science News 2001 Jun 23; 159(25): 389.

Siveter DJ, Williams M, Waloszek D. A Phosphatocopid Crustacean with Appendages from the Lower Cambrian. Science 2001 Jul 20; 293: 479-481. See also: Fortey R. The Cambrian Explosion Exploded? Science 2001 Jul 20; 293: 438-439.

Smith JB and others. A Giant Sauropod Dinosaur from an Upper Cretaceous Mangrove Deposit in Egypt. Science 2001 Jun 1; 292: 1704-1706. See also: Stokstad E. New Dig at Old Trove Yields Giant Sauropod. Science 2001 Jun 1; 292: 1623-1625; Perkins S. Sahara yield second-largest dinosaur. Science News 2001 Jun 23; 159(25): 397; Anonymous. Mangrove monster. New Scientist 2001 Jun 9; 170(2294): 23; Rist C. A Giant Among Dinosaurs. Discover 2002 Jan; 23(1): 52.

Stokstad E. Early Tyrannosaur Was Small But Well Armed. Science 2001 May 18; 292: 1278-1279.

Sutton MD and others. An exceptionally preserved vermiform mollusc from the Silurian of England. Nature 2001a Mar 22; 410: 461-463. See also: Stokstad E. New Fossil May Change Idea of First Mollusk. Science 2001 Mar 23; 291: 2292-2293. (23 March); Steiner G, Salvini-Plawan L. Acaenoplax -- polychaete or mollusc? [letter] Nature 2001 Dec 6; 414: 601-602.

Sutton MD and others. A three-dimensionally preserved fossil polychaete worm from the Silurian of Herefordshire, England. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Nov 22; 268(1483): 2355-2363.

Zhu M, Yu X and Ahlberg PE. A primitive sarcopterygian fish with an eyestalk. Nature 2001 Mar 1; 410: 81-84.

(The Cambrian explosion)



Heckman DS, and others. Molecular Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants. Science 2001 Aug 10; 293: 1129-1133. See also: Pennisi E. A Molecular Approach To Mushroom Hunting. Science 2001 Aug 10; 293: 1027-1028.

Holland ND and Chen J. Origin and early evolution of the vertebrates: new insights from advances in molecular biology, anatomy and paleontology. BioEssays 2001 Feb; 23(2): 142-151.

Kimura H, Watenabe Y. Oceanic anoxia at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Geology 2001 Nov; 29(11): 995-998.

Lieberman BS. A test of whether rates of speciation were unusually high during the Cambrian radiation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Aug 22; 268(1477): 1707-1714.

(Birds)



Cracraft J. Avian evolution, Gondwana biogeography and the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Mar 7; 268(1466): 459-469. See also: Cracraft J. Gondwana Genesis. Natural History 2001/2002 Dec/Jan; 110(10): 64-73; Edwards SV, Boles WE. Out of Gondwana: the origin of passerine birds. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2002 Aug; 17(8): 347-349.

Galis F. Digit identity and digit number: indirect support for the descent of birds from theropod dinosaurs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Jan; 16(1): 16. See also: Drossopoulou G and others . A model for anteroposterior patterning of the vertebrate limb based on sequential long- and short-range Shh signalling and Bmp signalling. Development 2000 Apr; 127(7): 1337-1348; Feduccia A. Digit homology of birds and dinosaurs: accomodating the cladogram. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Jun; 16(6): 285-286; Feduccia A. Pseudo-homeosis in avian feet. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2002 Jun 17(6): 256.

Ji QA and others. The distribution of integumentary structures in a feathered dinosaur. Nature 2001 Apr 26; 410: 1084-1088. See also: Sues H-D. Ruffling feathers. Nature 2001 Apr 26; 410: 1036-1037; Lemonick MD. Down-Covered Dinosaur. Time 2001 May 7 157(18): 56-57; Perkins S. Did fibers and filaments become feathers? Science News 2001 Apr 28; 159(17): 262; Rist C. The Proof Is in the Plumage. Discover 2002 Jan; 23(1): 45; Hayden T. A fossil of feathers? U.S.News & World Report 2001 May 7; 130(18): 49; Norell M. The Proof Is in the Plumage. Natural History 2001 Jul/Aug; 110(6): 58-63.

Norell MA, Clarke JA. Fossil that fills a critical gap in avian evolution. Nature 2001 Jan 11; 409: 181-184. See also: Stokstad E. New Fossil Fills Gap in Bird Evolution. Science 2001 Jan 12; 291: 225; Feduccia A. Fossils and avian evolution. Nature 2001 Nov 29; 414: 507-508.

Perkins S. A Ticklish Debate. Science News 2001 Aug 18; 160(7); 106-108.

Prum RO and others. Longisquama Fossil and Feather Morphology. [letter] Science 2001 Mar 9; 291: 1899-1900.

Rowe T and others.The Archaeoraptor forgery. Nature 2001 Mar 29; 410: 539-540. See also: Anonymous. Mix and match. New Scientist 2001 Mar 31; 169(2284): 7; Perkins S. Fake fossil not one but two new species. Science News 2001 Apr 21; 159(16): 253. (April 21).

Xu X, Zhou Z-H and Prum RO. Branched integumental structures in Sinornithosaurus and the origin of feathers. Nature 2001 Mar 8; 410: 200-204. See also: Wang L. Dinosaur fossil yields feathery structures. Science News 2001 Mar 10; 159(10): 149.

(Whales)



Gatesy J, O'Leary MA. Deciphering whale origins with molecules and fossils. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Oct; 16(10): 562-570.

Gingerich PD and others. Origin of Whales from Early Artiodactyls: Hands and Feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan. Science 2001 Sep 21; 293: 2239-2242. See also: Rose KD. The Ancestry of Whales. Science 2001 Sep 21; 293: 2216-2217; Harder B. New Fossils Resolve Whale's Origin. Science News 2001 Sep 22; 160(12); 180; Glasiusz, J. All in the Whale Family. Discover 2001 Dec; 22(12): 13; Rice DW. A Family Tree for Heavyweights. [letter] Science 2001 Nov 16; 294: 1459.

Thewissen JGM, Williams EM, Roe LJ, Hussain ST. Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls. Nature 2001 Sep 20; 413: 277-281. See also: Muizon Cd. Walking with whales. Nature 2001 Sep 20; 413: 259-260; Miller G. A whale of a find. New Scientist 2001 Sep 22; 171(2309): 18.

Thewissen JGM, Bajpai S. Whale Origins as a Poster Child for Macroevolution. BioScience 2001 Dec; 51(12).

(Mass extinctions)



Becker L and others. Impact Event at the Permian-Triassic Boundary: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Noble Gases in Fullerenes. Science 2001 Feb 23; 291: 1530-1533. See also: Kerr RA. Whiff of Gas Points to Impact Mass Extinction. Science 2001 Feb 23; 291: 1469-1470; Perkins S. Extinctions Tied to Impact from Space. Science News 2001 Feb 24; 159(8): 116; Hecht J. Wipeout. New Scientist 2001 Mar 3; 169(2280): 14; Simpson S. Deeper Impact. Scientific American 2001 May; 284(5): 18.

Beerling DJ, Osborne CP, Chaloner WG. Evolution of leaf-form in land plants linked to atmospheric CO2 decline in the Late Palaeozoic era. Nature 2001 Mar 15; 410: 352-354. See also: Kenrick P. Turning over a new leaf. Nature 2001 Mar 15; 410: 309-310; Hecht J. Leaves saved plants from suffocation. New Scientist 2001 Mar 17; 169(2282): 6.

Erbacheer J, Huber BT, Norris RD, Markey M. Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period. Nature 2001 Jan 18; 409: 325-327.

Erwin DH. Lessons from the past: Biotic recoveries from mass extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 May 8; 98(10): 5399-5403.

Harder B. New fossils threaten an extinction theory. Science News 2001 Nov 17; 160(20): 311. See also: Kerr RA. Paring Down the Big Five Mass Extinctions. Science 2001 Dec 7; 294: 2072-2073.

Hassler SW, Simonson BM. The Sedimentary Record of Extraterrestrial Impacts in Deep-Shelf Environments: Evidence from the Early Precambrian. The Journal of Geology 2001 Jan; 109: 1-9.

Hecht J. Cold shoulder for global snowball. New Scientist 2001 Jun 9; 179(2294): 12.

Hotinski RM and others. Ocean stagnation and end-Permian anoxia. Geology 2001 Jan; 29(1): 7-10.

Jablonski D. Lessons for the past: Evolutionary impacts of mass extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 May 8; 98(10): 5393-5398.

Kaiho K and others. End-Permian catastrophe by a bolide impact: Evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle. Geology 2001 Sep; 29(9): 815-818. See also: Anonymous. Death by sulphur. New Scientist 2001 Sep 8; 171(2307): 23.

Kennedy MJ, Christie-Blick N, Prave AR. Carbon isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic glacial carbonates as a test of paleoceanographic models for snowball Earth phenomena. Geology 2001 Dec; 29(12): 1135-1138. See also: Schrag DP, Hoffman PF. Life, geology and snowball Earth. [letter] Nature 2001 Jan 18; 306; Hecht J. Cold shoulder for global snowball. New Scientist 2001 Jun 9; 170(2294): 12.

Kennedy MJ, Christie-Blick N, Sohl LE. Are Proterozoic cap carbonates and isotopic excursions a record of gas hydrate destabilization following Earth's coldest intervals? Geology 2001 May; 29(5): 443-446. See also: Jacobson SB. Gas hydrates and deglaciations. Nature 2001 Aug 16; 412: 691-693; Simpson S. Triggering a Snowball. Scientific American 2001 Sep; 285(3): 20-21.

Kerr RA. Ancient Sky Rocks and an Unblemished Eros. Science 2001 Oct 5; 294: 3.

Kuypers MMN, and others. Massive Expansion of Marine Archaea During a Mid-Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event. Science 2001 Jul 6; 293: 92-94. See also: Smith DC. Expansion of the Marine Archaea. Science 2001 Jul 6; 293: 56-57.

Looy CV and others. Life in the end-Permian dead zone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jul 3; 98(14): 7879-7883.

Lubick N. Volcanic Accomplice. Scientific American 2001 Mar; 284(3): 19.

Melosh J. Deep down at Chicxulub. Nature 2001 Dec 20/27; 414: 861-862.

Mukhopadhyay S, Farley KA, Montanari A. A Short Duration of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Event: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Helium-3. Science 2001 Mar 9; 291: 1952-1954. See also: Perkins S. A quick recovery after dinosaur deaths. Science News 2001 Mar 24; 159(12): 189.

Padden M, Weissert H, Rafelis Mde. Evidence for Late Jurassic release of methane from gas hydrate. Geology 2001 Mar; 29(3): 223-226.

Pearson DA and others. Palynologically calibrated vertebrate record from North Dakota consistent with abrupt dinosaur extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Geology 2001 Jan; 29(1): 39-42.

Perkins S. Fossils found under tons of Kitty Litter. Science News 2001 Oct 20; 160(16): 248.

Retallack GJ. A 300-million-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticles. Nature 2001 May 17; 411: 287-290. See also: Kerp H. Atmospheric CO2 from fossil plant cuticles. [letter] Nature 2002 Jan 3; 415: 38.

Smith AB, Gale AS, Monks NEA. Sea-level change and rock-record bias in the Cretaceous: a problem for extinction and biodiversity studies. Paleobiology 2001 Spring; 27(2): 241-253. See also: Kerr RA. Mass Extinctions Face Downsizing, Extinction. Science 2001 Aug 10; 293: 1037.

Smith RMH, Ward PD. Pattern of vertebrate extinctions across an event bed at the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. Geology 2001 Dec; 29(12): 1147-1150.

Tanner LH and others. Stability of atmospheric CO2 levels across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Nature 2001 Jun 7; 411: 675-677. See also: Beerling D. CO2 and the end-Triassic mass extinction. Nature 2002 Jan 24; 415: 386-387; Retallack GJ. Triassic-Jurassic atmospheric CO2 spike. Nature 2002 Jan 24; 415: 386-387.

Twitchett RJ, and others. Rapid and synchronous collapse of marine and terrestrial ecosystems during the end-Permian biotic crisis. Geology 2001 Apr; 29(4): 351-354.

Wilson PA, Norris RD. Warm tropical ocean surface and global anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous period. Nature 2001 Jul 26; 412: 425-429.

Wright K. The Mother of All Extinctions. Discover 2001 Oct; 22(10): 28-29.

(Miscellaneous)



Anonymous. Silence of the deep. New Scientist 2001 Nov 3; 172(2315): 29.

Bossuyt F and Milinkovitch MC. Amphibians as Indicators of Early Tertiary "Out-of-India" Dispersal of Vertebrates. Science 2001 Apr 6; 292: 93-95.

Buchholtz EA, and Seyfarth E-A. The Study of "Fossil Brains": Tilly Edinger (1897-1967) and the Beginnings of Paleoneurology. BioScience 2001 Aug; 51(8): 674-682.

Burdick A. Victim of Geology. Discover 2001 Jul; 22(7): 44-47.

Burness GP, Diamond J, Flannery T. Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: The evolution of maximal body size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Dec 4; 98(25): 14518-14523. See also: Mauer BA. Big Thinking. Nature 2002 Jan 31; 415: 489-491.

Carrano MT, Wilson JA. Taxon distributions and the tetrapod track record. Paleobiology 2001 Summer; 27(3): 564-582.

Erickson GM, Rogers KC, Yerby SA. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates. Nature 2001 Jul 26; 412: 429-433. See also: Padian K, Ricqles AJde, Horner JR. Dinosaurian growth rates and bird origins. Nature 2001 Jul 26; 412: 405-408; Chinsamy A, Elzanowski A. Evolution of growth pattern in birds. Nature 2001 Jul 26; 412: 402-403.

Jackson JBC, Johnson KG. Measuring Past Biodiversity. Science 2001 Sep; 293: 2401-2404.

Lister AM, Sher AV. The Origin and Evolution of the Woolly Mammoth. Science 2001 Nov 2; 294: 1094-1097.

Luo Z-X, Cifelli RL, and Kielan-Jaworowska Z. Dual origin of tribosphenic mammals. Nature 2001 Jan 4; 409: 53-57. See also: Weil A. Relationships to chew over. Nature 2001 Jan 4; 409: 28-30; Stokstad E. Tooth Theory Revises History of Mammals. Science 2001 Jan 5; 291: 26.

Naish D. Fossils explained 34: Crocodilians. Geology Today 2001 Mar-Apr; 17(2): 71-77.

Niiler E. Bad Breathosasur. Scientific American 2001 Feb; 284(2): 29.

Norell MA, Makovicky PJ, Currie PJ. The beaks of ostrich dinosaurs. Nature 2001 Aug 30; 412: 873-874. See also: Perkins S. New fossil sheds light on dinosaurs' diet. Science News 2001 Sep 1; 160(9): 133.

Novacek M. Whales on Mountaintops. Smithsonian 2001 Dec; 32(9): 98-105.

Orndorff RL, Wieder RW, Filkorn HF. How the West Was Swum. Natural History 2001 Jun; 110(5): 22-24.

Perkins S. Even flossing wouldn't have helped. Science News 2001a Oct 20; 160(16): 248.

Perkins S. Turn Your Head and Roar. Science News 2001b Dec 15; 160(24): 376-378.

Perkins S. The Latest Pisces of an Evolutionary Puzzle. Science News 2001c May 5; 159(18): 282-284. (May 5). See also: Page MLe. There's a lot of them about. New Scientist 2001 Jan 6; 169(2272): 12.

Perkins S. CT scan unscrambles rare, ancient egg. Science News 2001d Oct 20; 160(16): 248.

Perkins S. Fossil footprints could be monumental. Science News 2001e Jun 23; 159(25): 397.

Perkins S. How did Triceratops grow its horns? Science News 2001f Oct 20; 160(16): 248.

Perkins S. Beyond Bones. Science News 2001g Jun 9; 362-364

Powell E. The Lowdown on the Brontosaurus. Discover 2001 Mar; 22(3): 10.

Pringle H. The Creature from the Zuni Lagoon. Discover 2001 Aug; 22(8): 42-49.

Rayfield EJ and others. Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur. Nature 2001 Feb 22; 409: 1033-1037. See also: Erickson GM. The bite of Allosaurus. Nature 2001 Feb 22; 409: 987-988; Stokstad E. Paleontologists Learn to Shake Up Virtual Bones. Science 2001 Feb 23; 291: 1475-1476; Hecht J. Why Big Al's butt was much worse than his bite. New Scientist 2001 Feb 24; 169(2279): 6.

Rose KD. Wyoming's Garden of Eden. Natural History 2001 Apr; 110(3): 55-59.

Sanz JL and others. An Early Cretaceous pellet. Nature 2001 Feb 22; 409: 998-999. See also: Perkins S. Jumbled bones show birds on the menu. Science News 2001 Mar 10; 159(10): 159; Powell E. Dining with Dinos. Discover 2001 Jun; 22(6): 13.

Simpson S. More Than Shade. Scientific American 2001 Sep; 285(3): 27.

Stanley GD, Fautin DG. The Origins of Modern Corals. Science 2001 Mar 9; 291: 1913-1914.

Steiner M, Reitner J. Evidence or organic structures in Ediacara-type fossils and associated microbial mats. Geology 2001 Dec; 29(12): 1119-1122.

Stokstad ER. Utah's Fossil Trove Beckons, And Tests, Researchers. Science 2001a Oct 5; 294: 41-43.

Stokstad E. Exquisite Chinese Fossils Add New Pages to Book of Life. Science 2001b Jan 12; 291: 232-236.

Wing SL. Hot Times in the Bighorn Basin. Natural History 2001 Apr; 110(3): 48-54.

Witmer LM. Nostril Position in Dinosaurs and Other Vertebrates and Its Significance for Nasal Function. Science 2001 Aug 3; 293: 850-853. See also: Stokstad E. Dinosaur Nostrils Get A Hole New Look. Science 2001 Aug 3; 293: 779; Perkins S. Study picks new site for dinosaur nostrils. Science News 2001 Aug 4; 160(5) 70; Anonymous. Jurassic nose job. New Scientist 2001 Aug 11; 171(2303): 23.

Zen E. What is Deep Time and Why Should Anyone Care? Journal of Geoscience Education 2001 Jan; 49(1): 5-9

Zimmer C. Prepared for the Past. Natural History 2001 Apr; 110(3): 28-29.

REFERENCES: Chapter 4a: Human Evolution

(Apes)



Blackmore S. Hello, who are you? New Scientist 2001 Jun 30; 170(2297): 52-53.

Cantalupo C, Hopkins WD. Asymmetric Broca's area in great apes. Nature 2001 Nov 29; 414: 505. See also: Mirsky S. Parts of Speech. Scientific American 2001 Feb; 286(2): 28.

Cohen P. Hand-shaking chimps get to grips with culture. New Scientist 2001 Apri 14; 170(2286): 19.

Marivaux L, and others. A Fossil Lemur from the Oligocene of Pakistan. Science 2001 Oct 19; 294: 587-591. See also: Bower B. Lemurs reveal clues to ancient Asian roots. Science News 2001 Oct 20; 160(16): 245; Ainsworth C. A giant leap for lemurs. New Scientist 2001 Oct 27; 172(2314): 20.

Motluk A. Clever monkeys. New Scientist 2001 Oct 20; 172(2313): 6.

Simons EL. The cranium of Parapithecus grangeri, an Egyptian Oligocene anthropoidean primate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jul 3; 98(14): 7892-7897.

Small MF. Sigma Chi Chimpy. Scientific American 2001 Jul; 284(1): 26.

Waal FBMde. Pointing Primates: Sharing Knowledge..Without Language. The Chronicle of Higher Education 2001 Jan 190; XLVII(19): B7-B9.

Whiten A, Boesch C. The Culture of Chimpanzees. Scientific American 2001 Jan; 284(1): 60-67.

(Pre-humans)



Aiello LC, Collard M. Our newest ancestor? Nature 2001 Mar 29; 410: 526-527.

Ainsworth C. We weren't the only ones to get a big head. New Scientist 2001 Jun 30; 179(2297): 11.

Balter M. Scientists Spar Over Claims of Earliest Human Ancestor. Science 2001 Feb 23; 291: 1460-1461.

Balter M, Gibbons A. Another Emissary From the Dawn of Humanity. Science 2001 Jul 13; 293: 187-188.

Blackwell LR, d'Errico F. Evidence of termite foraging by Swartkrans early hominids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 13; 98(4): 1358-1363. See also: Shipman P. What can you do with a bone fragment? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 13; 98(4) 1335-1337; Rist C. A Crunchy Hominid Taste Treat. Discover 2002 Jan; 23(1): 71.

Boaz NT, Ciochon RLL. The Scavenging of "Peking Man" Natural History 2001 Mar; 110(2): 46-51.

Bower B. Human ancestors made ancient entry to Java. Science News 2001 Apr 21; 159(16): 246.

Haile-Selassie Y. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Aswah, Ethiopia. Nature 2001 Jul 12; 412: 178-181. See also: Gee H. Return to the planet of the apes. Nature 2001 Jul 12; 412: 131-132; Bower B. Earliest Ancestor Emerges in Africa. Science News 2001 Jul 14; 160(2): 20; Ainsworth C. Ancient Ethiopian shakes the evolutionary tree. New Scientist 2001 Jul 14; 171(2299): 7; Lemonick MD, Dorfman A. One Giant Step for Mankind. Time 2001 Jul 23; 158(3): 54-61. (July 23).

Leakey MG and others. New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages. Nature 2001 Mar 22; 410: 433-440. See also: Lieberman DE. Another face in our family tree. Nature 2001 Mar 22; 410: 419-420; Balter M. Fossil Tangles Roots of Human Family Tree. Science 2001 Mar 23; 291: 2289-2291; Bower B. Fossil Skull Diversifies Family Tree. Science News 2001 Mar 24; 159(12): 180; Cohen P. Who's the daddy? New Scientist 2001 Mar 26; 169(2283): 5; Robinson S. The "Gang" Hits Again. Time 2001 Apr 2; 157(13): 65; Begley S. The New Old Man. Newsweek 2001 Apr 2; cxxxvii(14): 46-47; Bower B. Our family tree does the splits ... and then takes some lumps. Science News 2001 Apr 14; 159(15): 232; Wong K. Lucy, Meet Ken. Scientific American 2001 Jun; 284(6): 30.

Maddox J. A quintessential pluralist. Nature 2001 Aug 6; 412: 679-680. See also: Tickle A. He Did Everything. New Scientist 2001 Jun 9; 170(2294): 47.

Manzi G, Mallegni F, Ascenzi A. A cranium for the earliest Europeans: Phylogenetic position of the hominid from Ceprano, Italy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Aug 14; 98(17): 10011-10016.

Ron H, Levi S. When did hominids first leave Africa? New high-resolution magnetostratigraphy from the Erk-el-Ahmar Formation, Israel. Geology 2001 Oct; 29(10): 887-890.

Shipman P. The Man Who Found the Missing Link. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2001. See also: Palmer D. How persistence paid off. Nature 2001 Apr 19; 419: 869-870; Taylor M. The truth behind Trinil. New Scientist 2001 May 12; 170(2290): 54.

(Neanderthals)



Balter M. What--or Who-- Did in the Neandertals? Science 2001 Sep 14; 293: 1980-1981.

Bower B. Neandertals and humans each get a grip. Science News 2001a Feb 10; 159(6): 84.

Bower B. Evolution's Youth Movement. Science News 2001b Jun 2; 159(22): 346-348.

Bower B. Human fossils tell a fish tale. Science News 2001c Jun 16; 159(24): 376.

Hardy BL and others. Stone tool function at the paleolithic sites of Starosele and Buran Kaya III, Crimea: Behavioral implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Sep 11; 98(19): 10972-10977. See also: Bower B. Neandertals used tools with versatility. Science News 2001 Sep 22; 160(12): 187.

Lebel S and others. Comparative morphology and paleobiology of Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Bau de l'Aubesier, Vauchuse, France. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Sep 25; 98(20): 11097-11102. See also: Bower B. Neandertals show ancient signs of caring. Science News 2001 Sep 15; 160(11): 167; Selim J. Stone-Age Social Security. Discover 2001 Dec; 22(12): 16.

Niewoehner WA. Behavior inferences from the Skhul/Qafzeh early modern human remains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Mar 13; 98(6): 2979-2984; See also: Churchill SE. Hand morphology, manipulation, and tool use in Neandertals and early modern humans of the Near East. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Mar 13; 98(6): 2953-2955.

Ponce de Leon MS, Zollikofer CPE. Neanderthal cranial ontogeny and its implications for late hominid diversity. Nature 2001 Aug 2; 412: 534-538. See also: Bower B. Neandertals, humans may have grown apart. Science News 2001 Aug 4; 160(5): 71.

Smith CI and others. Not just old but old and cold? [letter]. Nature 2001 Apr 12; 771-772.

Stringer C, Davies W. Those elusive Neanderthals. Nature 2001 Oct 25; 413: 791-792.

(Modern humans)



Alroy J. A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction. Science 2001 Jun 8; 292: 1893-1896; Dayton L. Mass Extinctions Pinned On Ice Age Hunters. Science 2001 Jun 8; 292: 1819; Nash JM. Who killed Woolly? Time 2001 Jun 18; 157(24): 64-65; Cohen P. Whodunnit. New Scientist 2001 Jun 16; 170(2295): 17; Grayson DK, and others. Did Human Hunting Cause Mass Extinction? [letters]. Science 2001 Nov 16; 294: 1459-1462; Glausiusz J. That Killer Instinct. Discover 2002 Jan; 23(1): 39.

Bower B. Early Brazilians Unveil African Look. Science News 2001 Apr 7; 159(14): 212.

Brace CL and others. Old World sources of the first New World human inhabitants: A comparative craniofacial view. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Aug 14; 98(17): 10017-10022. See also: Anonymous. Out of Asia. New Scientist 2001 Aug 4; 171(2302): 23.

Culotta E, Sugden A, Hanson B. Humans on the Move. Science 2001 Mar 2; 291: 1721.

Dean C, and others. Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature 2001 Dec 6; 414: 628-631. See also: Moggi-Cecchi J. Questions of growth. Nature 2001 Dec 6; 414: 595-597; Bower B. Human evolution put brakes on tooth growth. Science News 2001 Dec 8; 160(23): 357.

Holden CX. More Cave Art Found in France. Science 2001 Jul 20; 293: 423. See also: Balter M. Stone Age Artists -- or Art Lovers -- Unmasked? Science 2001 Oct 5; 294: 31.

Harder B. Evolving in Their Graves. Science News 2001 Dec 15; 160(24): 380-381.

Keys D. The old country. New Scientist 2001 22/29 Dec; 172(2322/2323): 13.

Kirchweger G. Black and White. Discover 2001 Feb; 22(2): 32-33.

Klein RG. Southern Africa and modern human origins. Journal of Anthropological Research 2001 Spring; 57(1): 1-16

Manning SW, and others. Anatolian Tree Rings and a New Chronology for the East Mediterranean Bronze-Iron Ages. Science 2001 Dec 21; 294: 2532-2535. See also: Reimer PJ. A New Twist in the Radiocarbon Tale. Science 2001 Dec 21; 294: 2494-2495; Kromer B, and others. Regional 14CO2 Offsets in the Troposphere: Magnitude, Mechanisms, and Consequences. Science 2001 Dec 21; 294: 2529-2532.

Miller M. Mammoth Mystery. New Scientist 2001 May 5; 179(2289): 32-35. See also: Stone R. The Cold Zone. Discover 2001 Feb; 22(2): 58-65; Wong K. Mammoth Kill. Scientific American 2001 Feb; 284(2): 22.

Pavlov P, Svendsen JI, Indrelid S. Human presence in the European Arctic nearly 40,000 years ago. Nature 2001 Sep 6; 413: 64-67. See also: Gowlette JAJ. Out in the cold. Nature 2001 Sep 6; 413: 33-34; Bower B. Ancestors who came in from the cold. Science News 2001 Sep 22; 160(12): 187.

Piperno DR, Flannery KV. The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: New accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 13; 98(4): 2101-2103. See also: Smith BD. Documenting plant domestication: The consilience of biological and archaeological approaches. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 13; 98(4): 1324-1326; Knight J. The maize munchers. New Scientist 2001 Feb 17; 169(2278): 13.

Roberts RG and others. New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent-Wide Extinction About 45,000 Years Ago. Science 2001 Jun 8; 292: 1888-1892. See also: Diamond JM. Australia's last giants. Nature 2001 Jun 14; 411: 755-757.

Rosenberg KR, Trevathan WR. The evolution of Human Birth. Scientific American 2001 Nov; 285(5): 72-77.

Soares C. Talking Heads. New Scientist 2001 Apr 14; 170(2286): 26-29.

Solis RS, Haas J, Creamer W. Dating Caral, a Preceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the Central Coast of Peru. Science 2001 Apr 27; 292: 723-726. See also: Pringle H. The First Urban Center in the Americas. Science 2001 Apr 27; 292: 621-623; Hecht J. Urban heroes. New Scientist 2001 May 5; 170(2289): 14.

Svitil KA. Evolution enough for everyone. Discover 2001 Jun; 22(6): 16.

Tattersall I. How we came to be Human. Scientific American 2001 Dec; 285(6): 56-63.

Valladas H, and others. Evolution of prehistoric cave art. Nature 2001 Oct 4; 413: 479.

White TD. Once Were Cannibals. Scientific American 2001 Aug; 285(2): 58-65.

Wolpoff MH, Hawks J, Frayer DW, Hunley K. Modern Human Ancestry at the Peripheries: A Test of the Replacement Theory. Science 2001 Jan 12; 291: 293-297. See also: Pennisi E. Skull Study Targets Africa-Only Origins. Science 2001 Jan 12; 291: 231; Bower B. Gene, fossil data back diverse human roots. Science News 2001 Jan 21; 159: 21.

Zilhao J. Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Nov 20; 98(24): 14180-14185. See also: Bower B. Farmers took fast track in settling Europe. Science News 2001 Nov 17; 160(20): 308; Kunzig R. The Earliest Odyssey. U.S.News & World Report 2001 Apr 8; 132(11): 52-54.

Zhu RX and others. Earliest presence of humans in northeast Asia. Nature 2001 Sep 27; 413: 413-417. See also: Bower B. Humans in eastern Asia show ancient roots. Science News 2001 Sep 29; 160(13): 199; Anonymous. First Chinese. New Scientist 2001 Sep 29; 171(2310): 23; Gibbons A. Tools Show Humans Reached Asia Early. Science 2001 Sep 28; 293: 2368-2369.

(DNA)



Adcock GJ and others. Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jan 16; 98(2): 537-542. See also: Relethford JH. Ancient DNA and the origin of modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jan 16; 98(2): 390-391; Holden C. Oldest Human DNA Reveals Aussie Oddity. Science 2001 Jan 12; 291: 230-231; Dayton L. The man from down under. New Scientist 2001 Jan 13; 169(2273): 6; Cooper A and others. Human Origins and Ancient Human DNA. [letter]. Science 2001 Jun 1; 292: 1655-1656.

Hacia JG. Genome of the apes. Trends in Genetics 2001 Nov; 17(11): 637-645. See also: Marchant J. Meet the relatives. New Scientist 2001 Feb 17; 169(2278): 18.

Johnson ME, and others. Positive selection of a gene family during the emergence of humans and African apes. Nature 2001 Oct 4; 413: 514--519.

Kaessmann H, Wiebe V, Weiss G and Paabo S. Great ape DNA sequences reveal a reduced diversity and an expansion in humans. Nature Genetics 2001 Feb; 27(2): 155-156.

Ke Y and others. African Origin of Modern Humans in East Asia: A Tale of 12,000 Y Chromosomes. Science 2001 May 11; 292: 1151-1153. See also: Gibbons A. Modern Men Trace Ancestry to African Migrants. Science 2001 May 11; 292: 1051-1052; Anonymous. All roads lead back to Africa. New Scientist 2001 May 19; 170(2291): 25.

Lindahl T. Unlocking nature's ancient secrets. Nature 2001 Sep 27; 413: 358-359.

McCollum MA, Sharpe PT. Developmental genetics and early hominid craniodental evolution. BioEssays 2001 Jun; 23(6): 481-493.

Normile D. Gene Expression Differs in Human and Chimp Brains. Science 2001 Apr 6; 292: 44-45.

Sykes B. The Seven Daughters of Eve. New York: WW Norton & Co.; 2001. See also: Jacobs H. Reading the history of humanity. Nature 2001 Sep 20; 413: 254.

Takahata N, Lee S-H, Satta Y. Testing Multiregionality of Modern Human Origins. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2001 Feb; 18(2): 172-183.

Travis J. DNA hints at origin of all language. Science News 2001 Oct 27; 160(17): 269.

Zimmer C. "After You, Eve" Natural History 2001 Mar; 110(2): 32-35.

REFERENCES: Chapter 5: Homology and development

(Homology)



Dayton L. Rough Justice. New Scientist 2001 May 19; 170(2291): 46-47.

Mindell DP, Meyer A. Homology evolving. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Aug; 16(8): 434-440.

Su B and others. Genetic Diversity and Population History of the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) as Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2001 Jun; 18(6): 1070-1076.

(Development)



Arendt D, Technau U, Wittbrodt J. Evolution of the bilaterian larval foregut. Nature 2001 Jan 4; 409: 81-85.

Arendt D, Wittbrodt J. Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Oct 20; 356(1414): 1545-1563.

Baker NE. Master regulatory genes; telling them what to do. BioEssays 2001 Sept; 23(9): 763-766.

Carroll SB, Grenier JK, Weatherbee SD. From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design. Malden MA: Blackwell Science; 2001. See also: Deutsch JS. Evo/devo coming to age: the first textbook. BioEssays 2001 Aug; 23(8): 757-758; Meyer A. Whither evo-devo? Nature 2001 Oct 4; 413: 455-457; Patel NH. The Developmental Basis of Animal Evolution. Cell 2001 Nov 2; 107(3): 277-279; Wray GA. Resolving the Hox Paradox. Science 2001 Jun 22; 292: 2256-2257.

Cohen P. Monsters in our midst. New Scientist 2001 Jul 21; 171(2300): 30-33.

Davidson EH. Genomic Regulatory Systems: Development and Evolution. San Diego CA: Academic Press; 2001. See also: Patel NH. The Developmental Basis of Animal Evolution. Cell 2001 Nov 2; 107(3): 277-279; Wray GA. Resolving the Hox Paradox. Science 2001 Jun 22; 292: 2256-2257.

Downward J. The ins and outs of signalling. Nature 2001 Jun 14; 411: 759-762.

Finnerty JR. Cnidarians Reveal Intermediate Stages in the Evolution of Hox Clusters and Axial Complexity. American Zoologist 2001 Jun; 41(3): 608-620.

Fishman MC. Zebrafish -- the Canonical Vertebrate. Science 2001 Nov 9; 294: 1290-1291.

Galis F. Evolutionary history of vertebrate appendicular muscle. BioEssays 2001 May; 23(5): 383-387.

Galis F, van Alphen JJM, Metz JAJ. Why five fingers? Evolutionary constraints on digit numbers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2001 Nov; 16(11): 637-646.

Graham A, Smith A. Patterning the pharyngeal arches. BioEssays 2001 Jan; 23(1): 54-61.

Guss KA and others. Control of a Genetic Regulatory Network by a Selector Gene. Science 2001 May 11; 292: 1164-1167. (11 May). See also: Affloter M, and Mann R. Legs, Eyes, or Wings -- Selectors and Signals Make the Difference. Science 2001 May 11; 292: 1080-1081.

Kirk DL. Germ-Soma Differentiation in Volvox. Developmental Biology 2001 Oct 15; 238(2): 213-223.

Lagos-Quintana M and others. Identification of Novel Genes Coding for Small Expressed RNAs. Science 2001 Oct 26; 294: 853-858. See also: Lau NC, and others. An Abundant Class of Tiny RNAs with Probably Regulatory Roles in Caenorhabitis elegans. Science 2001 Oct 26; 294: 858-862; Lee RC, Ambros V. An Extensive Class of Small RNAs in Caenorhabitis elegans. Science 2001 Oct 26; 294: 862-864; Ruvkun G. Glimpses of a Tiny RNA World. Science 2001 Oct 26; 294: 797-799; Ambros V. microRNAs: Tiny Regulators with Great Potential. Cell 2001 Dec 28; 107(7): 823-826; Travis J. Biological Dark Matter. Science News 2002 Jan 12; 161(2): 24-25.

Llimargas M, Lawrence PA. Seven Wnt homologues in Drosophila: A case study of the developing tracheae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Dec 4; 98(25): 14487-14492.

Malaga-Trillo E, Meyer A. Genome Duplications and Accelerated Evolution of Hox Genes and Cluster Architecture in Teleost Fishes. American Zoologist 2001 Jun; 41(3): 676-686.

Martin G. Making a vertebrate limb: new players enter from the wings. BioEssays 2001 Oct; 23(10): 865-868.

McClintock JM and others. Consequences of Hox gene duplication in the vertebrates: an investigation of the zebrafish Hox paralogue group 1 genes. Development 2001 Jul; 128(13): 2471-2484.

McGonnell I. The evolution revolution. Trends in Genetics 2001 Apr; 17(4): 182-183.

Pearson H. Two become one. Nature 2001 Sep 20; 413: 244-246.

Popodi E, Raff RA. Hox genes in a pentameral animal. BioEssays 2001 Mar; 23(3): 311-214.

Randerson JP, Hurst LD. A comparative test of a theory for the evolution of anisogamy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Apr 22; 268(1469): 879-884.

Rauskolb C. The establishment of segmentation in the Drosophila leg. Development 2001 Nov; 128(22): 4511-4521.

Robert JS, Hall BK, Olson WM. Bridging the gap between developmental systems theory and evolutionary developmental biology. BioEssays 2001 Oct; 23(10): 954-962.

Robinson-Rechavi M, Laudet V. Evolutionary Rates of Duplicate Genes in Fish and Mammals. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2001 Apr; 18(4): 681-683.

Schilling TF, Knight RD. Origins of anteroposterior patterning and Hox gene regulation during chordate evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B. 2001 Oct 29; 356(1414): 1599-1613.

Svital KA. Supergenes: Turning Leaves into Flowers. Discover 2001a May; 22(5): 12. See also: Gravitz L. Early Bloomers. Discover 2002 Jan; 23(1): 38.

Svitil KA. Why there are no six-toed sloths. Discover 2001b Sep; 22(9): 15. See also: Coghlin A. Five is the magic number. New Scientist 2001 May 12; 170(2290). 14.

Szathmary E. Developmental circuits rewired. Nature 2001 May 10; 411: 143-144.

Tabin CJ, Johnson RL. Clocks and Hox. Nature 2001 Aug 25; 412: 780-781.

Wang Y, Hu Y, Meng J, Li C. An Ossified Meckel's Cartilage in Two Cretaceous Mammals and Origin of the Mammalian Middle Ear. Science 2001 Oct 12; 294: 361.

Wilkins AS. The Evolution of Developmental Pathways. Sunderland MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.; 2002.

REFERENCES: Chapter 6: Biochemical Similarities

(Biochemical structures)



Ent Fvanden, Amos LA, Lowe J. Prokaryotic origin of the actin cytoskeleton. Nature 2001 Sep 6; 413: 39-44. See also: Erickson HP. Evolution in bacteria. Nature 2001 Sep 6; 413: 30; Rist C. Eeny-weeny teeny-tiny bacteria backbones. Discover 2002; 23(1): 72.

Grabowski B, Cunningham FXJr, Gantt E. Chlorophyll and carotenoid binding in a simple red algal light-harvesting complex crosses phylogenetic lines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Feb 27; 98(5): 2911-2916.

Guterman L. How the Camel Got Its Hump, One Protein at a Time. The Chronicle of Higher Education 2001 Sep 28; XLVIII(5): A30-A31.

Jordan P and others. Three-dimensional structure of cyanobacterial photosystem I at 2.5 A resolution. Nature 2001 Jun 21; 411: 909-917. See also: Kuhlbrandt W. Chlorophylls galore. Nature 2001 Jun 21; 411: 896-898.

Kalir S and others. Ordering Genes in a Flagella Pathway by Analysis of Expression Kinetics from Living Bacteria. Science 2001 Jun 15; 292: 2080-2083.

McQuire BA, Zimmermann RA. The Ribosome in Focus. Cell 2001 Mar 23; 104(6): 813-816.

Samatey FA and others. Structure of the bacterial flagellar protofilament and implications for a switch for supercoiling. Nature 2001 Mar 15; 410: 331-336. See also: Normile D. How Bacterial Flagella Flip Their Switch. Science 2001 Mar 15; 291: 2065-2067.

Sambrano GR and others. Role of thrombin signalling in platelets in haemostasis and thrombosis. Nature 2001 Sep 6; 413: 74-78.

Thornton JW. Evolution of vertebrate steroid receptors from an ancestral estrogen receptor by ligand exploitation and serial genome expansions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 May 8; 98(10): 5671-5676. See also: Netting J. Ancient Estrogen. Science News 2001 Aug 11; 160(6): 94-95.

Trifonov EN and others. Distinct Stages of Protein Evolution as Suggested by Protein Sequence Analysis. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2001 Oct/Nov; 53(4/5): 394-401.

Yusupov MM and others. Crystal Structure of the Ribosome at 5.5A Resolution. Science 2001 May 4; 292: 883-896. See also: Ogle JM and others. Recognition of Cognate Transfer RNA by the 30S Ribosomal Subunit. Science 2001 May 4; 292: 897-902; Dahlberg AE. The Ribosome in Action. Science 2001 May 4; 292: 868-869; Pennisi E. Ribosome's Inner Workings Come Into Sharper View. Science 2001 Mar 30; 291: 2526-2527.

(Molecular systematics)



Adkins RM and others. Molecular Phylogeny and Divergence Time Estimates for Major Rodent Groups: Evidence from Multiple Genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2001 May; 18(5): 777-791.

Borchiellini C and others. Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2001 Jan; 14(1): 171-179.

Brown JR and others. Universal trees based on large combined protein sequence data sets. Nature Genetics 2001 Jul; 28(3): 281-285.

Dacks JB, Doolittle WF. Reconstructing/Deconstructing the Earliest Eukaryotes: How Comparative Genomics Can Help. Cell 2001 Nov 16; 107: 419-425.

Delsuc F and others. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Aug 7; 268(12476): 1605-1615.

Dijk MAMvan and others. Protein sequence signatures support the African clade of mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Jan 2; 98(1): 188-193.

Friedman WE, Floyd SK. Perspective: The origin of flowering plants and their reproductive biology -- a tale of two phylogenies. Evolution 2001 Feb; 55(2): 217-231.

Giribet G, Edgecombe GD, Wheeler WC. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 2001 Sep 13; 413: 157-161. See also: Hwang UW and others. Mitochondrial protein phylogeny joins myriapods with chelicerates. Nature 2001 Sep 13; 413: 154-157; Blaxter M. Sum of the arthropod parts. Nature 2001 Sep 13; 413: 121-122.

Hughes S, Mourchiroud D. High Evolutionary Rates in Nuclear Genes of Squamates. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2001 Jul; 53(1): 70-76.

Kadwell M and others. Genetic analysis reveals the wild ancestors of the llama and the alpaca. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 2001 Dec 22; 268(1485): 2575-2584.

Karol KG, and others. The Closest Living Relatives of Land Plants. Science 2001 Dec 14; 294: 2351-2353.

Kijas JMH and Anderson L. A Phylogenetic Study of the Origin of the Domestic Pig Estimated from the Near-Complete mtDNA Genome. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2001 Mar; 52(3): 302-308.

King N, Carroll SB. A receptor tyrosine kinase from choanoflagellates: Molecular insights into early animal evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001 Dec 18; 98(26): 15032-15037.

Lin Y-H, Penny D. Implications for Bat Evolution from Two New Complete Mitochondrial Genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2001 Apr; 18(4): 684-688.

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