The "Pandas" Drafts

An excerpt from Nicholas Matzke's article Design on Trial: How NCSE Helped Win the Kitzmiller Case. Reports of the National Center for Science Education 26(1-2), 37-44.

(Some HTML links have been added, otherwise the text is original.)

Barbara Forrest was the expert who would have to make the connection between the ID movement and creationism. She had, of course, coauthored Creationism's Trojan Horse, which discussed the origins and history of the Discovery Institute, the "Wedge document", and the leaders of the ID movement. However, the Discovery Institute only established the Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture in 1996. Of Pandas and People, which is the first book to use the terms "intelligent design" and "design proponents" systematically, and which presents all of the modern ID arguments, was published in 1989. The creationist origin of Pandas and the "intelligent design" phraseology was not covered in detail in previous works on the history of ID, so my job was to dig up everything we could possibly find on the origin of Pandas and "intelligent design". The NCSE archives contain several files on Pandas and on the publisher of the book, the Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE).

Links to Dr. Forrest's testimony on the Pandas drafts, and further discoveries made after the trial, are provided below.

Forrest's Testimony: "Creationism" and "ID"

Here are the now-famous word-count charts used by Barbara Forrest in her testimony in Kitzmiller v. Dover. These charts showed that the words "creation" and "creationist" were systematically changed to "intelligent design" and "design proponent" in the drafts for the book Of Pandas and People, in the aftermath of the 1987 Supreme Court case Edwards v. Aguillard .

Click the images for an enlarged view:

[img_assist|nid=110|title="Creation" to "Design"|desc=|link=popup|align=left|width=0|height=]

[img_assist|nid=112|title="Creationis_" to "Intelligent Design"|desc=|link=popup|align=right|width=0|height=]


Please note: These images may be freely used for nonprofit educational use as long as the source page is cited.

The exhibits that accompanied Dr. Forrest's testimony are available below.

"Cdesign Proponentsists"

For years, "intelligent design" (ID) proponents denied that ID is just a new label for creationism. However, it is now well-known that the first intelligent design "textbook," Of Pandas and People, is just a revised version of a classic "two-model' creationism vs. evolution book named Creation Biology. As Barbara Forrest showed during her testimony in Kitzmiller v. Dover, Pandas was remade into an intelligent design textbook in 1987, in a few months after the Supreme Court ruling against creation science in Edwards v. Aguillard came down.

The most striking example of the transition was discovered by Dr. Forrest as she compared the drafts of Creation Biology and Of Pandas and People. Not only had "creationism" and "creationist" literally been replaced, apparently via a word processor, with "intelligent design" and "design proponent" in passages that were otherwise unchanged, but she even found a transitional form between the two labels!

Scanned images of this passage, in its various versions, are shown below.


Creation Biology (1983), p. 3-34:



Biology and Creation (1986), p. 3-33:



Biology and Origins (1987), p. 3-38:



Of Pandas and People (1987, creationist version), p. 3-40:



Of Pandas and People (1987, “intelligent design” version), p. 3-41: